Esthetic Wax-Ups












83
Esthetic Wax-Ups
6
What Is an Esthetic Wax-Up?
28
An esthetic wax-up is a process in which wax is applied to a model of the patient’s teeth to simulate the
procedure and results of planned reconstruction, repair, or enhancement of a smile. Esthetic wax-ups
are indicated when anterior restorations are planned to restore caries lesions, fractures, wear (attri-
tion/erosion/abrasion), diastemata, intrinsic discoloration, or microdontia that most commonly aect
the lateral incisors (peg-shaped lateral) or to generally enhance a poor smile (Fig 6-1). Several factors
should be considered before initiating the treatment, such as caries risk, periodontal health, existing
restorations, alternative treatment options, and patient expectations.
Fig 6-1 Indications for veneers. (Redrawn from Malone et al.
29
)
Abrasion
Discoloration
Lengthening
Fracture
Root exposure
Crown
malformation
Defective
restoration

Esthetic Wax-Ups
84
6
Benefits of an Esthetic Wax-Up
An esthetic wax-up can have the following benets:
Aids in developing an overall personalized treatment plan for the restorative procedures
Guides the dentist to determine the best result for the patient
Visualizes the nal esthetic and functional outcome to the dentist and the patient
Facilitates communication with the patient and with the laboratory technician
Motivates the patient when they see what the treatment will accomplish
Provides a template for indirect mock-ups
An esthetic wax-up may be considered the greatest working tool in dentistry. Wax, unlike other
materials, allows easy changes through addition and/or carving. The nal tooth form can be shown
to patients and modied to suit their needs and expectations, and patients become more motivated
when they can visualize their custom-made complete treatment plan. The wax-up can be impressed
with a silicone impression material to fabricate composite mock-ups that further enhance visualization
of the expected outcome and allow for the fabrication of excellent provisional restorations. There are
several types of anterior restorations: composite, glass-ionomer, ceramic, and porcelain-fused-to-
metal crowns, as well as composite and ceramic veneers. Veneers are a very popular, conservative,
and successful treatment for improving an unpleasant smile; tooth preparation for veneers involves
facial surface reduction (between 0.6 to 1 mm) and may involve incisal edge reduction as well. Teeth
nos. 6 to 11 on the mounted casts described in chapter 3 were prepared to receive ceramic veneers.
This chapter will guide you to fabricate an esthetic wax-up on these teeth, restoring the missing tooth
surfaces to an ideal, pleasant, and functional form.
Waxing Armamentarium
Mounted casts with teeth nos. 6 to 11
prepped to receive ceramic veneers (Fig
6-2a).
Lifelike presentation wax (Fig 6-2b) is used
for esthetic wax-ups; its white color serves
as a visual aid for the dentist and when
presenting the case to the patient (Whip
Mix no. 04359).
Sticky wax (Dentsply Trubyte no. 77310).
Golden proportion waxing guide 8 or 8.5
mm may be used to adjust the width of
the teeth (Figs 6-2c and 6-2d; Panadent
no. 4330).
Boley gauge caliper used to measure
lengths and widths of teeth (Fig 6-2e).
Torch or Bunsen burner.
Lighter/matches.
Wax addition and carving instruments.
Shimstock occlusal strips (Benco Dental
no. 1195-995).
Large double end pattern painter (Whip
Mix no. 11673).
Nylon stockings.
Sharp pencil.
Ultrane-point black marker.

Waxing Steps for an Esthetic Wax-Up
85
Waxing Steps for an Esthetic Wax-Up
1. Identify the margins of the preparation.
Use a pencil to mark the margins on the prepared tooth surfaces; wax should be placed within
the connes of the pencil markings (Fig 6-3).
Fig 6-2a Mounted casts with maxillary anterior
teeth prepared for ceramic veneers.
Fig 6-2b Lifelike presentation wax.
Fig 6-3 Marking the margins of the prepared teeth.
Fig 6-2c Panadent waxing
guide.
Fig 6-2d Using Panadent waxing guide. Fig 6-2e Boley gauge.

Esthetic Wax-Ups
86
6
2. Wax the central incisors.
Determine the length of the central inci-
sors. The central incisors are the first
teeth to be waxed in an esthetic wax-up
as they guide the dimensions of the rest
of the anterior teeth. The Panadent waxing
guide can be used to determine the width
of the teeth. The length of the central inci-
sors range between 10 and 11 mm with 2
to 4 mm of display when the lips are at
rest and should allow for anterior guidance
to be established. Measure the length of
prepared teeth on the cast using the Boley gauge to determine the thickness of wax that should
be added at the incisal edge. The central incisor length of the cast used in this exercise was
found to be 8 mm (Fig 6-4).
Wax the labial surface. Apply a thin layer of sticky wax to all the prepared tooth surfaces, then start
adding the lifelike presentation wax near the cervical part of the central incisors, making sure to cover
all the margins of the preparation (Fig 6-5a). Proceed to wax the entire labial surface; the wax should
be added carefully to avoid going beyond the margins (Fig 6-5b). Add more wax at the cervical third
where the height of contour is located and at the line angles; further enhancement of these contours
is done at the nal carving and contouring step (Figs 6-5c and 6-5d).
Fig 6-5c Fig 6-5d
Fig 6-5b Waxing the labial surface.Fig 6-5a Wax is added near the margins.
Fig 6-4 Measuring the length of the prepared central
incisors with a Boley gauge

Waxing Steps for an Esthetic Wax-Up
87
Establish the incisal edge. Using the thin end of the PKT1 instrument, add wax over the incisal
edges of the prepared central incisors. Because the premeasured length of these teeth was 8 mm,
add approximately 2 to 3 mm to reach a reasonable nal length (Fig 6-6a). When the last layer of
wax added to the incisal edges of both central incisors is still warm and soft, press the upper cast
against the bench top to level the two central incisors and achieve an even length. This is necessary
for beautiful esthetics. The central incisors may be the same length as the rst premolars on your
cast; therefore, with the upper cast pressed against a at bench top, both central incisors and rst
premolars should contact the bench (Fig 6-6b). You can also verify the length by measuring with
the Boley gauge (Fig 6-6c). Return the cast to the articulator and verify that there is enough overjet
and overbite in the intercuspal position (about 2 mm; Figs 6-6d and 6-6e). Verify the adequacy of
anterior guidance by moving the upper cast to simulate protrusive movement; the central incisors
should separate the rest of the teeth in protrusion (Fig 6-6f). If the length was not adequate as
determined by the Boley gauge/lack of overbite/lack of adequate anterior guidance, more wax
should be added to the incisal edges.
Fig 6-6a Waxing the incisal edge. Fig 6-6b Pressing the warm wax against the
bench to even the length of both central incisors.
Fig 6-6c Measuring the length of the central incisors after
waxing the incisal edge.

Esthetic Wax-Ups
88
6
3. Wax the lateral incisors.
Start by adding wax to the labial surface, making sure to cover all the margins. Apply more wax
at the height of contour in the cervical third and at the line angles, then add wax to form the
incisal edges, which should be shorter than those of the central incisors by 1 to 1.5 mm (Fig 6-7).
Fig 6-6f The central incisors separate the posterior
teeth in protrusion.
Fig 6-7b Waxing the incisal edges of the lateral in-
cisors (red arrows point to thicker wax applied at the
cervical third to form the height of contour).
Fig 6-7a Waxing the labial surface of the lateral incisors.
Figs 6-6d and 6-6e Verifying adequate overjet and overbite.

Waxing Steps for an Esthetic Wax-Up
89
Fig 6-7c Lateral incisors are shorter than central inci-
sors by 1 to 1.5 mm.
Fig 6-8a Fig 6-8b
4. Wax the canines.
Establish the initial layer of wax. Add wax to the labial surface starting at the cervical part,
making sure that all the margins are covered (Fig 6-8).

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83Esthetic Wax-Ups6What Is an Esthetic Wax-Up? 28An esthetic wax-up is a process in which wax is applied to a model of the patient’s teeth to simulate the procedure and results of planned reconstruction, repair, or enhancement of a smile. Esthetic wax-ups are indicated when anterior restorations are planned to restore caries lesions, fractures, wear (attri-tion/erosion/abrasion), diastemata, intrinsic discoloration, or microdontia that most commonly aect the lateral incisors (peg-shaped lateral) or to generally enhance a poor smile (Fig 6-1). Several factors should be considered before initiating the treatment, such as caries risk, periodontal health, existing restorations, alternative treatment options, and patient expectations.Fig 6-1 Indications for veneers. (Redrawn from Malone et al.29)AbrasionDiscolorationLengtheningFractureRoot exposureCrown malformationDefective restoration Esthetic Wax-Ups846Benefits of an Esthetic Wax-UpAn esthetic wax-up can have the following benets:• Aids in developing an overall personalized treatment plan for the restorative procedures• Guides the dentist to determine the best result for the patient• Visualizes the nal esthetic and functional outcome to the dentist and the patient• Facilitates communication with the patient and with the laboratory technician• Motivates the patient when they see what the treatment will accomplish• Provides a template for indirect mock-upsAn esthetic wax-up may be considered the greatest working tool in dentistry. Wax, unlike other materials, allows easy changes through addition and/or carving. The nal tooth form can be shown to patients and modied to suit their needs and expectations, and patients become more motivated when they can visualize their custom-made complete treatment plan. The wax-up can be impressed with a silicone impression material to fabricate composite mock-ups that further enhance visualization of the expected outcome and allow for the fabrication of excellent provisional restorations. There are several types of anterior restorations: composite, glass-ionomer, ceramic, and porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns, as well as composite and ceramic veneers. Veneers are a very popular, conservative, and successful treatment for improving an unpleasant smile; tooth preparation for veneers involves facial surface reduction (between 0.6 to 1 mm) and may involve incisal edge reduction as well. Teeth nos. 6 to 11 on the mounted casts described in chapter 3 were prepared to receive ceramic veneers. This chapter will guide you to fabricate an esthetic wax-up on these teeth, restoring the missing tooth surfaces to an ideal, pleasant, and functional form.Waxing Armamentarium• Mounted casts with teeth nos. 6 to 11 prepped to receive ceramic veneers (Fig 6-2a).• Lifelike presentation wax (Fig 6-2b) is used for esthetic wax-ups; its white color serves as a visual aid for the dentist and when presenting the case to the patient (Whip Mix no. 04359).• Sticky wax (Dentsply Trubyte no. 77310).• Golden proportion waxing guide 8 or 8.5 mm may be used to adjust the width of the teeth (Figs 6-2c and 6-2d; Panadent no. 4330).• Boley gauge caliper used to measure lengths and widths of teeth (Fig 6-2e).• Torch or Bunsen burner.• Lighter/matches.• Wax addition and carving instruments.• Shimstock occlusal strips (Benco Dental no. 1195-995).• Large double end pattern painter (Whip Mix no. 11673).• Nylon stockings.• Sharp pencil.• Ultrane-point black marker. Waxing Steps for an Esthetic Wax-Up85Waxing Steps for an Esthetic Wax-Up1. Identify the margins of the preparation.• Use a pencil to mark the margins on the prepared tooth surfaces; wax should be placed within the connes of the pencil markings (Fig 6-3).Fig 6-2a Mounted casts with maxillary anterior teeth prepared for ceramic veneers.Fig 6-2b Lifelike presentation wax.Fig 6-3 Marking the margins of the prepared teeth.Fig 6-2c Panadent waxing guide.Fig 6-2d Using Panadent waxing guide. Fig 6-2e Boley gauge. Esthetic Wax-Ups8662. Wax the central incisors.• Determine the length of the central inci-sors. The central incisors are the first teeth to be waxed in an esthetic wax-up as they guide the dimensions of the rest of the anterior teeth. The Panadent waxing guide can be used to determine the width of the teeth. The length of the central inci-sors range between 10 and 11 mm with 2 to 4 mm of display when the lips are at rest and should allow for anterior guidance to be established. Measure the length of prepared teeth on the cast using the Boley gauge to determine the thickness of wax that should be added at the incisal edge. The central incisor length of the cast used in this exercise was found to be 8 mm (Fig 6-4).• Wax the labial surface. Apply a thin layer of sticky wax to all the prepared tooth surfaces, then start adding the lifelike presentation wax near the cervical part of the central incisors, making sure to cover all the margins of the preparation (Fig 6-5a). Proceed to wax the entire labial surface; the wax should be added carefully to avoid going beyond the margins (Fig 6-5b). Add more wax at the cervical third where the height of contour is located and at the line angles; further enhancement of these contours is done at the nal carving and contouring step (Figs 6-5c and 6-5d).Fig 6-5c Fig 6-5dFig 6-5b Waxing the labial surface.Fig 6-5a Wax is added near the margins.Fig 6-4 Measuring the length of the prepared central incisors with a Boley gauge Waxing Steps for an Esthetic Wax-Up87• Establish the incisal edge. Using the thin end of the PKT1 instrument, add wax over the incisal edges of the prepared central incisors. Because the premeasured length of these teeth was 8 mm, add approximately 2 to 3 mm to reach a reasonable nal length (Fig 6-6a). When the last layer of wax added to the incisal edges of both central incisors is still warm and soft, press the upper cast against the bench top to level the two central incisors and achieve an even length. This is necessary for beautiful esthetics. The central incisors may be the same length as the rst premolars on your cast; therefore, with the upper cast pressed against a at bench top, both central incisors and rst premolars should contact the bench (Fig 6-6b). You can also verify the length by measuring with the Boley gauge (Fig 6-6c). Return the cast to the articulator and verify that there is enough overjet and overbite in the intercuspal position (about 2 mm; Figs 6-6d and 6-6e). Verify the adequacy of anterior guidance by moving the upper cast to simulate protrusive movement; the central incisors should separate the rest of the teeth in protrusion (Fig 6-6f). If the length was not adequate as determined by the Boley gauge/lack of overbite/lack of adequate anterior guidance, more wax should be added to the incisal edges.Fig 6-6a Waxing the incisal edge. Fig 6-6b Pressing the warm wax against the bench to even the length of both central incisors.Fig 6-6c Measuring the length of the central incisors after waxing the incisal edge. Esthetic Wax-Ups8863. Wax the lateral incisors.• Start by adding wax to the labial surface, making sure to cover all the margins. Apply more wax at the height of contour in the cervical third and at the line angles, then add wax to form the incisal edges, which should be shorter than those of the central incisors by 1 to 1.5 mm (Fig 6-7).Fig 6-6f The central incisors separate the posterior teeth in protrusion.Fig 6-7b Waxing the incisal edges of the lateral in-cisors (red arrows point to thicker wax applied at the cervical third to form the height of contour).Fig 6-7a Waxing the labial surface of the lateral incisors.Figs 6-6d and 6-6e Verifying adequate overjet and overbite. Waxing Steps for an Esthetic Wax-Up89Fig 6-7c Lateral incisors are shorter than central inci-sors by 1 to 1.5 mm.Fig 6-8a Fig 6-8b4. Wax the canines.• Establish the initial layer of wax. Add wax to the labial surface starting at the cervical part, making sure that all the margins are covered (Fig 6-8). Esthetic Wax-Ups906• Wax the canine cusp. Start by forming the cusp tips by adding wax beads to the cusp tip of the prepared tooth structure then pressing the cast against the bench top when the last wax bead added to both canines is still warm to level the canines with the central incisors (Figs 6-10a to 6-10d). For a beautiful smile, the canines and the central incisors lie on the same plane, and the lateral incisors are 1 to 1.5 mm short of that plane. The cusp ridges are then added by joining the incisal aspect of the line angles to the cusp tip, keeping the mesial cusp ridge shorter than the distal cusp ridge and the corresponding cusp ridges of the contralateral canines at the same level and contour (Figs 6-10e to 6-10g). After the wax solidies, the cast can be returned to the articulator to check for canine guidance; the canines should separate all teeth in lateral excursions (Figs 6-10h and 6-10i).Fig 6-9a Waxing the cervical height of contour. Fig 6-9b Waxing the labial ridge.Fig 6-9c Wax is added at the line angles.• Wax the canine contours. Add more wax at the cervical third to establish the height of contour, which is more pronounced in the canines compared to the incisors (Fig 6-9a), then wax the labial ridge by adding a vertical layer of wax connecting the cusp tip of the prepared tooth to the cervical height of contour (Fig 6-9b). These contours should be added to give the canine its marked convexity in the mesiodistal and cervicoincisal directions. Wax the line angles by adding wax to join the proximal ends of the height of contour to the incisal aspect of the tooth (Fig 6-9c). The contours and line angles of both canines should be a mirror image with regard to location and thickness. Further adjustments are done at the nal carving and contouring step (Fig 6-9d).Fig 6-9d Completed canine contours. Waxing Steps for an Esthetic Wax-Up91Fig 6-10b Waxing the cusp tip.Fig 6-10a Fig 6-10d Occlusal view after leveling the canine lengths.Fig 6-10c Pressing the warm wax against the bench top to level the canine lengths.Fig 6-10e Waxing the cusp ridges.Fig 6-10f Completed canine cusp ridges.Fig 6-10g Completed canine contours and cusp ridges. Esthetic Wax-Ups926• Wax the remaining missing tooth structure. Use the thin end of the PKT1 instrument to ll in wax between the contour lines to complete the canines (Fig 6-11).5. Final carving and contouring.• Reseal the margins. Heat the thin end of the PKT1 instrument and gently retouch the margins of the teeth to close any open areas (Fig 6-12).Fig 6-10h and 6-10i Checking for adequate canine guidance.Fig 6-11 After complete wax addition to form the canines.Fig 6-12 Waxing Steps for an Esthetic Wax-Up93• Adjust the size of the teeth. The apparent width of the teeth is the width as perceived from the facial view of the smile, not the facial view of each individual tooth. The proportions of the width of the teeth can be adjusted by using the Panadent golden proportion waxing guide (Fig 6-13a). The size of the face of the teeth can be adjusted by drawing the face of the teeth with the ultrane-point black marker to guide the carving and achieve mirror images of the contra-lateral teeth and a harmonious smile (Fig 6-13b). The Hollenback carver is used to carve the wax between the lines and away from the lines, keeping the line angles at their proper location (Figs 6-13c and 6-13d)Fig 6-13a Fig 6-13bFig 6-13c Fig 6-13d Esthetic Wax-Ups946Fig 6-14a Fig 6-14b Incisal embrasures.• Carve the lingual surface. The excess wax at the lingual nish line should be carved smooth with the tooth structure using the Hollenback carver, and excess wax akes on the cast are removed with the brush or airway syringe (Fig 6-15).Fig 6-15a Before carving the lingual surface. Fig 6-15b After carving the lingual surface and re-moving excess wax akes on the cast.• Carve the embrasures. The incisal embrasures are carved with the Hollenback carver by proper carving and rounding of the point angles. The rst embrasure carved is the one between the central incisors, which should be the smallest. The embrasure between the central and the lateral incisors is larger, and the embrasure between the lateral incisor and the canine is the largest. Contralateral embrasures should be mirror image. (Fig 6-14). Waxing Steps for an Esthetic Wax-Up95Fig 6-16 • Evaluate your work. The nal wax-up should be evaluated from facial, proximal, and incisal views with the goal of achieving a symmetric harmonious smile with matching contralateral point angles, line angles, embrasures, and contours. You can see in Fig 6-16 the cervical contour of tooth no. 6 is decient compared to tooth no. 11, and the distolabial line angle of tooth no. 8 is more convex compared to that of tooth no. 9. The line angles of the lateral incisors do not match well, and the incisal embrasure between the central incisors is too small compared to the remaining embrasures.• Final adjustments and polishing. After making the needed adjustments, the wax-up can be gently polished with nylon stockings, and wax ecks on the cast should be cleaned (Fig 6-17).Fig 6-17  Esthetic Wax-Ups966Fig 6-18a Marking the developmental depressions to guide carving.Fig 6-18b Large discoid carver used to carve depres-sions of central incisors.6. Characterization.• To give the smile more character, you may carve the developmental depressions, which exist mesial and distal to the midline of the teeth. Start by shading the areas to be carved with the ultrane-point black marker (Fig 6-18a). The developmental depressions of the central incisors and canines are carved with the discoid end of the large discoid-cleoid carver, and those of the lateral incisors are carved with the small end of the discoid-cleoid carver; carving should be done very gently to achieve a smooth wax-up (Figs 6-18b and 6-18c). The resultant developmental depressions should be nearly symmetric in width and depth and can be viewed from both the labial and incisal views (Figs 6-18d to 6-18f).Fig 6-18c Small discoid carver is used to carve depres-sions of lateral incisors. Waxing Steps for an Esthetic Wax-Up97Fig 6-18d Facial view after carving the developmental depressions.Fig 6-18e Lateral view after carving the developmental depressions.Fig 6-18f Incisal view. Esthetic Wax-Ups986Same Cast, Different SmilesHow to create a narrower smileTo create narrower-looking teeth, the line angles and heights of contours should be repositioned closer to the midline of the tooth, the labial ridge of the canine should be positioned more mesially, and the incisal embrasures should be carved wider to decrease the mesiodistal width of the incisal edges. Add a layer of wax to the previously created smile with more wax at the prospective position of the line angles and cervical height of contour (Fig 6-19a), then mark the line angles, heights of contour, and canine labial ridge positions with the ultrane-point black marker to guide you during carving (Figs 6-19b and 6-19c). Using the Hollenback carver, increase the size of the incisal embrasures by rounding the point angles of the teeth (Figs 6-19d and 6-19e). Narrow developmental depressions and vertical characterization lines may be carved to enhance the narrow appearance of the smile (Fig 6-19f). Fig 6-19d Widening the incisal embrasures by mak-ing the point angles more convex.Fig 6-19e Narrow smile esthetic wax-up.Fig 6-19b Marking the position of the line angles to guide carving.Fig 6-19a Adding a layer of wax to reposition the line angles.Fig 6-19c After carving the line angles closer to the midline. Same Cast, Dierent Smiles99How to create a wider smileTo create wider-looking teeth, the line angles and heights of contour should be repositioned to be farther from the midline of the tooth, the labial ridge of the canine should be positioned more distally, and the incisal embrasures should be carved smaller to increase the mesiodistal width of the incisal edges. Add a layer of wax to the previously established smile with more wax at the prospective position of the line angles and cervical height of contour, and close all embrasures with the wax to be able to recarve them to a smaller size (Fig 6-20a). Mark the line angles, heights of contour, and canine labial ridge positions with the ultrane-point black marker to guide you during carving (Figs 6-20b and 6-20c). Using your Hollenback carver, start carving away from the lines and between the lines, keeping the line angles at their marked locations. Carve small incisal embrasures by creating minimal rounding of the point angles. Horizontal grooves may be lightly carved with the thin end of the PKT2 instrument, which enhances the wide appearance of the teeth (Figs 6-20d and 6-20e).Fig 6-20aFig 6-19f Carving narrow developmental depressions and adding vertical grooves to en-hance the narrow appearance. Esthetic Wax-Ups1006Fig 6-20dFig 6-20eFig 6-20b Marking the line angles and heights of con-tour farther from the midline.Fig 6-20c Marking the canine labial ridge toward the distal. Same Cast, Dierent Smiles101Fig 6-21a Fig 6-21b Which one will your patient choose (Fig 6-21)? Esthetic Wax-Ups1026Fig 6-21cFig 6-21d 103References1. Soboļeva U, Lauriņa L, Slaidiņa A. The masticatory system—An overview. Stomatologija 2005;7:77–80.2. The Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms: Ninth Edition. J Prosthet Dent 2017;117:e1–e105.3. Lila-Krasniqi ZD, Shala KS, Pustina-Krasniqi T, Bicaj T, Dula LJ, Guguvčevski L. Dierences between centric relation and maximum intercuspation as possible cause for development of temporomandibular disorder analyzed with T-scan III. Eur J Dent 2015;9:573–579.4. Okeson JP. Management of Temporomandibular Disorders and Occlusion, ed 7. St Louis: Elsevier-Mosby, 2013.5. Nelson SJ, Ash MM Jr. Wheeler’s Dental Anatomy, Physiology, and Occlusion, ed 9. St Louis: Saunders, 2010.6. Abdalla R. Waxing for Dental Students. Chicago: Quintessence, 2018.7. Shillingburg HT, Wilson EL, Morrison JT. Guide to Occlusal Waxing, ed 3. Chicago: Quintessence, 2002. 8. Gauri M, Ramandeep D. Waxing techniques to develop proper occlusal morphology in dierent occlusal schemes. J Indian Prosthodont Soc 2011;11:205–209.9. Bhuvaneswaran M. Principles of smile design. J Conserv Dent 2010;13:225–232. 10. Shillingburg HT, Sather DA, Stone SE. Fundamentals of Fixed Prosthodontics, ed 4. Chicago: Quintessence, 2012.11. Hoe TM, Ting J, Chui LS, Wen TM, Al-Juboori MJ. Variables and factors that may aect smile design: A mini review. lnt J Contemp Dent Med Rev 2015;2015:1–4. 12. Boksman L. Simplifying laboratory communication: The dental midline position, incisal cant and incisal horizontal plane. http://glidewelldental.com/education/chairside-dental-magazine/volume-5-issue-4/simpli-fying-laboratory-communication-the-dental-midline-position-incisal-cant-and-incisal-horizontal-plane/. Accessed 3 January 2018.13. Davis NC, Smile design. Dent Clin N Am 2007; 51: 299–318.14. Spear F. Evaluating facial esthetics: The esthetic plane. http://www.speareducation.com/spear-re-view/2013/08/evaluating-facial-esthetics-the-esthetic-plane. Accessed 7 January 2018.15. Tjan AHL, Miller GD. Some esthetic factors in a smile. J Prosthet Dent 1984;51:24–28.16. Goldstein R. Esthetics in Dentistry. Hamilton, Ontario: B.C. Decker; 2002.1 7. Kirtley GE. The art of a beautiful smile. J Cosmet Dent 2008;24:122–130.18. Using the RED proportion to engineer the perfect smile. http://www.dentistrytoday.com/component/content/article/52-Cover-Story/934-using-the-red-proportion-to-engineer-the-perfect-smile. Accessed 3 February 2018. References10419. Kinzer G. Demystifying manipulation for obtaining centric relation. http://www.speareducation.com/spear- review/2013/04/demystifying-manipulation-for-obtaining-centric-relation. Accessed 23 August 2018.20. Wilson PH, Banerjee A. Recording the retruded contact position: A review of clinical techniques. Dent J 2004;196: 395–402.21. Hrankowski M. Rationale for use of semi-adjustable articulators in the dental practice & laboratory. http://jensendental.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Dr_Hrankowski_white-paper.pdf. Accessed 17 March 2018.22. Godavarth AS, Suresh Sajjan MC, Rama Raju AV, Rajeshkumar P, Premalatha A, Chava N. Correlation of condylar guidance determined by panoramic radiographs as an alternative to interocclusal record method. 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Tylman’s Theory and Practice of Fixed Prostho-dontics, ed 8. St Louis: Ishiyaku EuroAmerica, 1989. Occlusal Esthetic WaxingThe Art ofandRowida Abdalla, , This book is a concise but comprehensive guide for understanding the basic principles of occlu-sion and esthetics that are necessary to perfect wax-ups on mounted casts. The author denes important occlusal terminology and describes tooth morphology with a focus on how these features aect function. The esthetic princi-ples that aect smile design and are import-ant for achieving harmony are also discussed. The second half of this book provides an over-view of the waxing armamentarium and step-by-step waxing instructions for maxillary and mandibular posterior teeth in occlusion as well as esthetic wax-ups. With useful photographs and illustrations throughout, The Art of Occlusal and Esthetic Waxing has the practical informa-tion that will help readers perfect their wax-ups and understand the signicance of morphologic features on proper function.About the bookOcclusalThe Art of and Esthetic WaxingContents134562Introduction to OcclusionPrinciples of Estheticse Dental ArticulatorWaxing Mandibular Posterior Teeth in OcclusionWaxing Maxillary Posterior Teeth in OcclusionEsthetic Wax-Ups9780867 15811390000ISBN 978-0-86715-811-3AbdallaAbout the authorRowida Abdalla, , , is Assistant Professor in the Division of Restorative Dentistry at the Univer-sity of Kentucky College of Dentistry in Lexington, where she is the director of the dental anatomy, morphology, and occlu-sion course. Born and raised in Cairo, Dr Abdalla completed dental school, specialty training, and a master’s degree in operative dentistry in Egypt. She taught restorative dentistry for several years in Cairo and worked as a researcher in the National Center for Radiation Research and Technology. Dr Abdalla’s research focused on the prevention of the damaging eects of radiotherapy on tooth structure, specically for patients treated for head and neck cancer. In 2012, she moved to the United States for training at Eastman Institute for Oral Health in Roches-ter, New York, where she completed a fellowship in community dentistry and a residency in advanced education for general dentistry. Dr Abdalla was the 2014 recipient of the AMWPA merit award and was honored with an NAAMA grant for academic excellence. She has dedicated her career to teaching restorative dentistry and improving the skills of dental students. Dr Abdalla is also the author of Waxing for Dental Students (Quintessence, 2018). Occlusal Esthetic WaxingThe Art ofandRowida Abdalla, , This book is a concise but comprehensive guide for understanding the basic principles of occlu-sion and esthetics that are necessary to perfect wax-ups on mounted casts. The author denes important occlusal terminology and describes tooth morphology with a focus on how these features aect function. The esthetic princi-ples that aect smile design and are import-ant for achieving harmony are also discussed. The second half of this book provides an over-view of the waxing armamentarium and step-by-step waxing instructions for maxillary and mandibular posterior teeth in occlusion as well as esthetic wax-ups. With useful photographs and illustrations throughout, The Art of Occlusal and Esthetic Waxing has the practical informa-tion that will help readers perfect their wax-ups and understand the signicance of morphologic features on proper function.About the bookOcclusalThe Art of and Esthetic WaxingContents134562Introduction to OcclusionPrinciples of Estheticse Dental ArticulatorWaxing Mandibular Posterior Teeth in OcclusionWaxing Maxillary Posterior Teeth in OcclusionEsthetic Wax-Ups9780867 15811390000ISBN 978-0-86715-811-3AbdallaAbout the authorRowida Abdalla, , , is Assistant Professor in the Division of Restorative Dentistry at the Univer-sity of Kentucky College of Dentistry in Lexington, where she is the director of the dental anatomy, morphology, and occlu-sion course. Born and raised in Cairo, Dr Abdalla completed dental school, specialty training, and a master’s degree in operative dentistry in Egypt. She taught restorative dentistry for several years in Cairo and worked as a researcher in the National Center for Radiation Research and Technology. Dr Abdalla’s research focused on the prevention of the damaging eects of radiotherapy on tooth structure, specically for patients treated for head and neck cancer. In 2012, she moved to the United States for training at Eastman Institute for Oral Health in Roches-ter, New York, where she completed a fellowship in community dentistry and a residency in advanced education for general dentistry. Dr Abdalla was the 2014 recipient of the AMWPA merit award and was honored with an NAAMA grant for academic excellence. She has dedicated her career to teaching restorative dentistry and improving the skills of dental students. Dr Abdalla is also the author of Waxing for Dental Students (Quintessence, 2018).

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