Glossary










287
Glossary
analog Relating to a mechanism in which data
are represented by continuously variable physi-
cal quantities.
angstrom unit (Å) A unit of measurement equal
to one-millionth of a centimeter; x-ray wave-
lengths are expressed in angstrom units.
angulation e direction of the primary x-ray
beam in relation to the tooth and receptor.
anode e positively charged side of the dental
x-ray tube. It contains the tungsten target at
which the electrons are aimed and from which
x-rays are emitted.
anodontia e developmental absence of teeth. It
can be complete or partial.
ANSI See American National Standards Institute.
anterior nasal spine e radiopacity seen in the
midline of the maxilla at the inferior termination
of the nasal septum.
anterior palatine foramen e opening in
the midline of the palate just posterior to the
central incisors through which vessels and nerves
emerge.
anteroposterior projection An extraoral radio-
graph of the skull seen in the coronal plane.
antibiotic prophylaxis e antimicrobial drugs
prescribed before dental treatment for patients
whose medical conditions can be aected by a
bacteremia resulting from dental treatment.
antiseptic A substance that inhibits the growth
of bacteria.
antral or inverted “Y” e radiopaque “Y”
formed by the anterior and inferior border of
the maxillary sinus as the arms and the oor
of the nasal cavity as the stem which is useful
in the mounting orientation of maxillary canine
projections.
arch e formation of teeth seen in the axial plane.
arthrography Modality for radiographic evalua-
tion of a bone joint after injection of a radi-
opaque contrast medium.
atom e basic unit of matter, composed of a pos-
itively charged nucleus around which negatively
charged electrons revolve.
atomic mass e total number of protons and
neutrons in the nucleus of an atom and is desig-
nated by the letter A.
atomic number e number of protons in the
nucleus of an atom. e symbol is Z, and it is
written as the subscript, for example, 3Li.
attenuation Absorbing or weakening of an x-ray
beam because of passage through a material.
attrition e wearing away of teeth by occlusal
forces.
autoclaving e sterilizing of instruments by
steam.
automatic processing e processing of radio-
graphs by machine, eliminating the need for
human interaction to move the lms through
the processing solutions. is technique employs
a standardized procedure for processing lms as
A
abrasion e wearing away of tooth structure by
mechanical means (e.g., toothbrush).
absorption A process in which the intensity of a
beam of radiation is reduced as a result of the
interactions involved in passing through matter.
acquired immunodeciency syndrome
(AIDS) e group of disease entities caused by
the human immunodeciency virus (HIV).
actual focal area e true representation of the
area of the anode of an x-ray tube that the elec-
trons actually strike.
acute (short-term) effects e eects of radi-
ation that manifest themselves within minutes,
days, or weeks after exposure.
administrative radiograph A radiograph taken
for other than diagnostic purposes, such as a
radiograph taken for verication of third-party
payment.
advanced caries Caries that has penetrated
through the dentin and is about to reach the
pulp chamber.
ALARA principle (concept) e acronym for as
low as reasonably achievable. is term refers to
reducing radiation exposure to patients as much
as possible within the dental oce without exces-
sive cost or inconvenience to the patient.
ala-tragus line An imaginary line between the ala
of the nose and the tragus of the ear that is kept
parallel to the oor particularly for panoramic
radiographs.
alpha particle A positively charged particle
emitted from an atomic nucleus.
alternating current (AC) Current that ows in
one direction and then in the opposite direction
in the circuit.
alveolar bone e bone of the mandible and
maxilla that supports and surrounds the roots
of the teeth.
alveolar crest e most coronal portion of the
alveolar bone found between the teeth.
amelogenesis imperfecta e hereditary devel-
opmental defect of enamel seen in both the
primary and secondary dentition.
American Academy of Oral and Maxillofa-
cial Radiology (AAOMR) An organization
established to promote and advance the art and
science of radiology in dentistry and to provide
a forum for communication among and profes-
sional advancement of its members.
American National Standards Institute
(ANSI) Institute that designates lm speed (sen-
sitivity) by using the letters A through F (A for
the slowest lm and F for the fastest).
Amperage (ampere) (A) e unit of measure-
ment of the amount of current owing in an
electric circuit. e unit milliampere (mA) is one-
thousandth of an ampere and is the important
unit of current measurement pertaining to an
x-ray tube.
it is basically an automated time-temperature
method.
autotransformer A transformer that has only one
coil and a series of taps that allow it to increase
or reduce voltage.
axial plane e plane of the head that is paral-
lel to the oor.
B
background radiation e ever-present
manmade or naturally occurring ionizing radi-
ation in the environment. Its sources include
cosmic rays, radon, radioactive materials, indus-
trial waste, and nuclear fallout.
barrier A radiation-absorbing material such as
lead, concrete, or plaster used to protect an area
from radiation. e term also refers to protec-
tion used against microorganisms, such as the use
of gloves, masks, glasses, and surface coverings.
barrier envelope A plastic bag that the x-ray lm
packet is placed in to prevent contamination by
saliva.
becquerel (Bq) e Système International (SI)
unit of radioactivity produced by the disin-
tegration of unstable elements. It replaces the
curie.
bedridden A term used to describe a patient who
cannot leave his or her bed; such patients cannot
travel to a dental oce to have radiographs
exposed on them or receive dental treatment.
benign lesion A term applied to tumors that may
be harmful but not life-threatening.
beta particles Electrons emitted from the nuclei
of radioactive atoms.
bilateral lesion A lesion that is on both sides of
the oral cavity. Most bilateral ndings are normal
anatomic landmarks.
binding energy e energy (expressed in electron
volts) that binds the orbiting electrons around the
nucleus of an atom.
biopsy An examination of tissue removed from a
living body to discover the presence, cause, or
extent of a disease.
bisecting-angle technique (bisecting the
angle) A technique for intraoral periapical radi-
ography in which the receptor is positioned as
close to the tooth as possible and the central x-ray
is directed vertically perpendicular to an imagi-
nary line that bisects the angle formed by the long
axis of the tooth and the receptor .
bite block A device used to support and position
dental receptors in the patient’s mouth.
bitewing projections (radiographs) Intraoral
images that show only the crown portions of
opposing teeth in the biting position primarily
utilized to view interproximal areas.
blurred image An image showing decreased detail
and denition as a result of patient, lm, or x-ray
source movement during an exposure.
bone marrow e soft inner portion of bone.

288 Glossary
bone window e density range in computed
tomography in which bone images are seen
without superimposition of soft tissue.
bremsstrahlung (general) radiation Liter-
ally braking radiation, the release of a photon of
energy by a bombarding electron slowed and bent
o course by an atom.
buccal caries Demineralization of the hard tissue
structure present on the outside surface of the
tooth that is dicult to detect radiographically.
buccal-object rule In localization, if an object on
a second radiograph moves in the opposite direc-
tion of the horizontal tube shift, then the object
is buccally positioned.
buccinator shadow e radiopaque area seen
mostly in the maxillary premolar area that repre-
sents the soft tissue density of the muscle in the
cheek (buccinator muscle).
C
calibration procedure When dental x-ray
machines are adjusted for accuracy at regular
intervals. X-ray machine calibration is performed
by a competent technician to conrm that the
radiographic equipment is functioning properly
in producing consistently diagnostically accept-
able radiographic images.
calcication Hardening of a structure caused by
calcium deposition.
calcium tungstate e uorescent material used
to coat intensifying screens, emitting a blue light.
calculus e radiopaque calcication concretion
that adheres to the teeth.
cancellous bone Bone that is composed mainly
of marrow.
caries Demineralization of the hard tooth struc-
ture with subsequent destruction. Appears radio-
lucent on radiographs.
cassette A wrapping or container for x-ray lm
that is light-tight yet permits penetration of
x-rays. Cassettes may be plastic, cardboard, or
metal.
cathode e negatively charged side of the dental
x-ray tube. It contains the tungsten lament and
the molybdenum focusing cup.
cathode ray e stream of electrons in the x-ray
tube traveling from lament to target.
cell recovery e process by which cells heal
themselves from the eects of radiation.
cementoenamel junction at place on the
tooth where the enamel ends and the cemen-
tum begins.
cemento-osseous dysplasia (COD) Is a con-
dition of the jaws that is inherently a benign
lesion. It arises from the broblasts of the peri-
odontal ligaments.
cementum e calcied tissue that surrounds the
root and helps to support the tooth.
centers of roatation In tomography, the point
around which the source of radiation rotates. e
center of rotation changes as the receptor and
x-ray source rotate which allows the image layer
(focal trough) to conform to the shape of the
dental arches.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC) e U.S. governmental agency based in
Atlanta, Georgia, that is responsible for tracking
and responding to outbreaks of infectious disease.
central ray at x-ray located in the center of the
x-ray beam as it leaves the tube head.
cephalometric radiography e modality for
measuring the skull by means of radiography.
cephalostat e head-holding device used in
cephalometric radiography.
Certied Radiation Equipment Safety Ofcer
(CRESO) ose who perform the inspection
and calibration of x-ray equipment. eir respon-
sibilities include performing checks on the kilo-
voltage, milliamperage, output, timer accuracy,
tube head stability, and x-ray beam alignment of
the dental x-ray unit.
cervical burnout e shadow seen interproxi-
mally on radiographs that is caused by the con-
cavity in the root surface at that area. It may
resemble caries.
chair position e position of the chair and its
head rest and back rest during radiographic
procedures.
characteristic radiation X-rays produced when
orbiting electrons in an atom fall from outer
shells to inner shells after an orbiting electron is
knocked out of one of the inner shells by bom-
barding electrons.
charge-coupled device (CCD) A type of elec-
tronic sensor used in direct digital radiography.
chromosomes One of a denite number of
rodlike bodies, containing genes, found in the
nucleus of a cell. At the time of cell division,
they duplicate, divide, and distribute evenly in
the resulting cells.
chronic effects See long-term eects.
clear lm A lm that after processing does not
show an image.
cleft palate e developmental condition in
which embryonic fusion of the palate fails to
occur.
clusters e high incidence of cancers in certain
geographic areas.
coherent scatter An interaction of x-rays with
matter in which the path of the x-ray is deviated
without a loss of energy.
coin test A test carried out in the darkroom to test
the eectiveness of the safelight.
collimation e process of restricting the size and
shape of the x-ray beam.
collimator A device that limits the size and shape
of the x-ray beam.
collimator cutoff (cone cutting) A curved or
straight radiopaque border representing an unex-
posed area on the image caused by not center-
ing the x-ray beam on the receptor while using a
circular- (cylindrical) or rectangular-shaped PID.
complementary metal oxide semiconduc-
tor (CMOS) A type of electronic sensor used in
direct digital radiography.
composite Synthetic restoration primarily used in
anterior regions.
Compton effect An interaction between x-rays
and matter whereby the x-ray photon is deected
from its path after dislodging a loosely bound elec-
tron from an atom. is interaction takes place
about 62% of the time in dental radiography.
computed tomography (CT) scanning Tomo-
graphic process in which x-ray scanning produces
digital data that measure the extent of the energy
transmission through an object. is information
is stored and transformed by a computer into a
density scale that is used to generate an image.
concavity A depression.
concha e radiopaque outgrowth of tissue from
the lateral walls of the nasal cavity.
concrescence e condition in which two or
more teeth are joined by their cementum.
condensing osteitis A condition character-
ized by the formation of dense bone around the
apex of a tooth in response to low-grade pulpal
necrosis.
cone e pointed position-indicating device on
the dental x-ray machine through which the
x-rays travel after leaving the tube.
cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) A
more recent means to acquire a CT image for
dental purposes and is also known as cone beam
volumetric tomography (CBVT). is tech-
nique involves use of a round or rectangular
cone-shaped x-ray beam on a two-dimensional
x-ray sensor.
cone cutting e error produced by not centering
the x-ray beam on the receptor, producing unex-
posed areas on the image while using a cone-
shaped PID .
condentiality e state of being free from unau-
thorized disclosure. For example, material in a
dental chart is condential information.
congenital A condition that is present at birth.
contrast e dierence in densities between adja-
cent areas on the radiograph.
coronal plane An orientation plane that divides
the head into front and back portions.
coronoid process of the mandible e mesial
superior radiopaque part of the ascending ramus
of the mandible that is seen in the distal infe-
rior portions of maxillary molar periapical
radiographs.
cortical bone e dense outer layer of the man-
dible and maxilla.
cosmic ray Radiation that has its origin outside
of the Earths atmosphere (e.g., radiation from
the sun).
coulombs/kg e unit for expressing x-ray expo-
sure in the SI system.
CRESO See Certied Radiation Equipment Safety
Ocer.
crest e height of an energy (i.e. x-ray) wave.
critical organ An organ that if damaged by radia-
tion will seriously aect a patient’s quality of life.
cross-contamination e spreading of micro-
organisms from one instrument or patient to
another.
crown-root ratio e relationship between the
length of the tooth that is embedded in bone
and the part that is not.
CT number A number indicating the density of a
tissue on a CT scan.
Cummulaive effective dose (CUMEfd) e
accumulated lifetime dose of radiation that
dental personnel should not exceed.
cumulative effects ese are eects that are addi-
tive, as repetitive exposure can damage cells that
are not repaired and can lead to health problems.
cupping e change of shape seen radiographi-
cally in the crest of the interseptal bone that is
cup-shaped.
curie (Ci) e unit of measurement of the
number of nuclear disintegrations of a radioac-
tive element. e curie was superseded by the
becquerel in 1985.
cut A tomographic plane.
cycle (of electric current) e sine wave plot of
the change in polarity of an alternating current
circuit in which the current travels rst in the
positive direction and then in the negative
direction.
cyst A pathologic radiolucent lesion in which a
bone cavity is lined by epithelium.
D
dark (dense) image A dense or black image.
darkroom A room with controlled lighting where
x-ray lm is handled and processed.
darkroom maintenance Steps taken to ensure
quality assurance in the darkroom.
daylight loader e device attached to an auto-
matic processor that allows the operator to
develop lm in ambient light.
Deciduous teeth e primary dentition.
denition (detail) e degree of clarity on a radio-
graph.

289Glossary
denitive diagnosis A nal diagnosis that is made
after getting the results of all performed diagnos-
tic examinations (i.e. prescribed radiographs).
dens invaginatus A developmental disturbance
whereby the enamel organ invaginates into the
pulp of the tooth.
Dense (dark) image A dark or black image.
density (receptor) e degree of blackness on a
radiograph.
density (object) e relative mass of an object
through which an x-ray beam passes, causing it
to appear radiopaque or radiolucent.
dental papilla Appears at the root apex as the newly
erupted tooth progresses into the oral cavity.
deterministic or nonstochastic effects ese
eects have a clear relationship between the expo-
sure and the eect. In addition, the magnitude
of the eect is directly proportional to the size
of the dose.
dentigerous cyst (follicular cyst) A cyst that
develops from the enamel organ of a tooth. It
may contain the tooth or be adjacent to it.
dentin Comprises the major part of the tooth
structure and is seen in both the crown and the
root portions of the tooth. Dentin is radiopaque
on radiographs.
dentinogenesis imperfecta A hereditary distur-
bance that aects both the primary and second-
ary dentition. It is characterized by poor enamel
that may wear thin or chip, early calcication of
the pulp chambers and canals, and short roots,
especially noticeable in the permanent teeth.
dentoalveolar abscess An abscess in bone
resulting from a necrotic pulp.
detail See denition.
detector e digital electronic sensor (receptor)
that is used in digital radiographic techniques to
produce an image of the oral structures after it is
exposed to x-radiation and is connected to a com-
puter in some manner.
developer e solution used in the processing of
exposed x-ray lm that softens the emulsion and
precipitates silver from the silver bromide crys-
tals of the lm emulsion that have been ener-
gized by x-rays.
developer cutoff e blank area on processed
radiographs that results from an insucient level
of solution in the darkroom developer tank.
developmental disability Patients who are men-
tally disabled or have other physical conditions,
such as cerebral palsy or autism, and are aicted
before the age of 22.
diaphragm e lead-collimating device found in
the dental x-ray machine that limits the beam
size.
DICOM images e digital receptor receives the
information generated by the radiation exposure.
is raw data is three-dimensional, goes through
reconstruction, and forms a pile of images known
as DICOM images. ese images are transferred
to the software that allows the dental professional
to view the area of interest (FOV) in the axial,
coronal, and sagittal planes.
differential diagnosis e process that the diag-
nostician goes through with the use of radio-
graphs, clinical examination, and patient history
to formulate a diagnosis.
digital image An image formed by a computer
after the conversion of analog penetration data
to digital expression.
digitize Convert to numbers.
dilaceration A developmental disturbance that
results in an abnormally curved root or crown.
dimensional accuracy e accurate dimensional
relationship of one part of a tooth to another on
a radiographic image.
dimensional distortion e distortion seen pri-
marily with the bisecting-angle technique in
which parts of the object farther from the recep-
tor are foreshortened in relation to parts of the
object that are closer to the receptor (e.g., the
buccal roots of maxillary molars versus the palatal
root).
direct current (DC) Electric current that ows in
one direction and does not reverse itself.
direct digital radiography Digital modality that
involves use of a (wired or wireless) sensor that
has a direct relationship to the computer, with
the sensor being either a charge-coupled device
or a complementary metal oxide semiconductor.
direct effects of radiation Radiation eects
that are the results of the x-radiation striking
the aected cell.
direct supervision Referring to the physical pres-
ence of the dentist during a sta member’s per-
formance of duties.
disability A physical or mental condition that
limits or impairs a persons life activities.
disclosure e process of informing the patient
about the risks and benets of a procedure.
disinfection e process of destroying disease-
causing microorganisms by physical or chemi-
cal means.
distodens (distomolar, paramolar, or fourth
molar) A supernumerary tooth seen distal to the
third molar.
distortion A change in the size or shape of an
object seen on a radiograph.
divergent beam e primary beam of x-radiation
that spreads as it leaves the tube.
dose e amount of radiation energy absorbed per
unit mass of tissue at a particular site.
dose equivalent A concept that allows for the
fact that not all radiations are identical in bio-
logic eects. e dose equivalent is expressed in
rems or sieverts.
dose rate e dose in rads or grays absorbed per
unit of time.
dose-response curve e plot of the eect of
radiation as a function of the dose given.
double exposure An error in which the same
lm packet is used twice, producing superim-
posed images.
double lm packet A dental lm packet in which
there are two pieces of lm.
drying A step in the processing of radiographs
where any residual water is removed.
duplicating lm A reversal lm used to replicate
original images.
duty cycle e portion of every minute that
the dental x-ray machine can be used without
overheating.
duty rating e number of consecutive seconds in
a minute that a dental x-ray machine can be oper-
ated without overheating.
E
effective dose A calculation that considers the
dierence in tissue sensitivity. It is the pre-
ferred method for comparing eective tissue
sensitivity.
effective focal area e apparent size and shape
of the focal spot when viewed from a position in
the primary beam.
electric current e ow of electricity through
a circuit.
electromagnetic radiation A grouping of energy
waves that have the weightlessness of the waves
and the speed of which they travel (the speed of
light-86,000 miles per second) in common.
electromagnetic spectrum e spectrum
of energy-bearing waves whose properties are
determined by their wavelength, frequency and
penetrating ability.
electron A negatively charged particle, which is a
constituent of every neutral atom.
electron cloud e electrons at the cathode sur-
rounding the tungsten lament.
electronic timers Timers that are used with
the newer dental x-ray units. e use of elec-
tronic timers, as opposed to mechanical timers, is
imperative as short exposure times are employed
with digital sensors and faster, more sensitive
contemporary x-ray lms.
electrostatic artifact Black linear streaks or black
spots on the radiograph caused by static electricity.
elongation e distortion on a radiograph that
results in lengthening of the image particularly
caused by insucient vertical angulation
emulsion e silver halide suspension in gelatin
that is coated on the x-ray lm base.
enamel e radiopaque covering of the crown of
the tooth.
enamel hypoplasia A defect associated with
a reduced thickness of enamel that is formed
during the developing stages of the enamel.
enamel pearls (enameloma) Small, rounded,
hyperplastic area of enamel seen on the roots
of the teeth.
endostosis (dense bone island, idiopathic
osteosclerosis) An internal growth of bone
that is considered to be the internal version
of exostoses that appears radiopaque on radio-
graphic images and are asymptomatic and within
normal limits.
enlargement An increase in the size of the image.
erosion A condition of the teeth that results from
a chemical action not involving bacteria on the
tooth surface. Areas of erosion appear as radio-
lucent defects on the tooth and can be mistaken
for caries radiographically.
eruption e emergence of teeth into the oral
cavity.
exostosis (hyperostosis) An overgrowth of
bone on the surface of the alveolar bone.
exposure A measure of the ionization in air pro-
duced by x-ray or gamma radiation.
exposure routine e order in which exposures
are taken.
exposure technique e technique used by
the operator to exposure radiographic images.
e goal of the dental professional is to perfect
their technique, reduce radiographic retakes and
produce diagnostically acceptable radiographs
with the least amount of radiation exposure to
the patient and to themselves.
exposure time e amount of time, expressed in
fractions of seconds or impulses, that x-rays are
generated.
extension paralleling technique A technique
for intraoral radiography that uses a 16-in target-
receptor distance, receptor placement parallel to
the long axis of the teeth, and a central ray direc-
tion perpendicular to both the object and the
receptor.
external oblique ridge A radiopaque line seen
in mandibular posterior periapical radiographs
that appears higher and shorter than the internal
oblique or mylohyoid ridge.
external resorption e idiopathic condition seen
radiographically where the tissue from the peri-
odontal ligament causes resorption of the dentin.
extraction socket e radiolucent area on a
radiograph that has not lled with bone after a
tooth is removed from that area.
extraoral projections Radiographs that are taken
with the receptor and source of radiation outside
of the patient’s mouth.

290 Glossary
F
fallout A form of background radiation produced
by a nuclear explosion.
federal regulations A set of regulations promul-
gated by the U.S. government governing the
manufacture and performance of dental x-ray
machines.
eld of view (FOV) e patient’s maxillofacial
area that is of interest when taking a CBCT
(CBVT) image.
lament e tungsten wire found at the cathode
in the x-ray tube that when heated boils o
electrons.
lling overhang Poorly contoured lling that
allows accumulation of debris.
lm A transparent sheet of cellulose acetate or a
similar material that is coated on both sides with
an emulsion sensitive to radiation and light.
lm badge A recording device worn to record
one’s exposure to ionizing radiation.
lm base e cellulose acetate sheet on which the
emulsion is coated.
lm contrast e dierence in the degrees of
density.
lm fog An overall gray appearance due to dimin-
ished contrast.
lm hanger e device that carries the lm
through the manual processing procedure.
lm-holding device e device used to hold a
lm in place for intraoral radiography.
lm mount A cardboard or plastic holder for n-
ished radiographs.
lm packet e lm receptor used in conven-
tional (lm-based) radiography consisting of the
an outer vinyl package wrapper, a black paper lm
wrapper, an x-ray lm, and a lead foil backing.
lm reversal e improper placement of the
lm packet in the patient’s mouth that results in
an underexposed lm with a geometric pattern
(i.e. herringbone pattern), caused by the useful
beam striking the lead foil backing before the
lm.
lm roller at part of an automatic processor that
moves the lm along from one step to another in
the automatic processing sequence.
lm-screen system e imaging system used
in conventional extraoral radiography in which
the lm is used in combination with intensify-
ing screens.
lm speed (sensitivity) An expression of how
much radiation for a given period of time is nec-
essary to produce an image on lm.
lm viewing e positioning of the nished radio-
graphs on an illuminating device for reading and
interpretation.
lter An aluminum disk placed in the path of the
useful beam that absorbs the softer, less penetrat-
ing radiations.
ltration e removal of long (soft), nonpenetrat-
ing x-ray photons from the x-ray beam.
ssural cysts Cysts that are always found in pre-
dictable anatomic locations because they develop
along embryonic suture lines.
xation e localization of an object in three
planes.
xer e solution used in the processing of
exposed x-ray lm that removes the unaected
silver bromide crystals from the emulsion and
hardens (preserves) the image.
exible cassette A cassette that can be wound
around a drum for panoramic radiography.
oor of maxillary sinus e radiopaque horizon-
tal line seen above the apices of the maxillary pre-
molars and molars on periapical lms.
oor of the nasal cavity e horizontal radio-
paque line seen in the maxillary incisor maxillary
incisor, canine and posterior regions.
orid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FLCOD) Is
considered a type of COD (cemento-osseous dys-
plasia) but can occur in both maxilla and mandi-
ble and in multiple quadrants.
uorescence e property of emitting visible
light when struck by radiation.
focal-lm distance (FFD) e distance from the
focal spot (target) at the anode of the dental x-ray
tube to the receptor . It is usually expressed in
inches (e.g., an 8-in FFD). Currently known as
the target-receptor distance.
Focal-object distance e distance from the
focal spot (target) at the anode of the dental
x-ray tube to the object (i.e. tooth) being
radiographed.
focal cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) Is a
condition similar to PCOD (periapical cemento-
osseous dysplasia) but occurs in the posterior
mandible, distal to the canines. It usually occurs
as a single-site lesion.
focal spot (area) See target.
focal trough at plane of an object that is seen
clearly on a tomogram also known as the plane
of acceptable detail.
fog A detrimental density imparted to a radio-
graphic image by the lm base and chemical
action on unexposed silver grains. An overall
gray appearance due to diminished contrast. Fog
is increased by inadvertent exposure to white
light.
follicle (dental sac) As crown formation pro-
gresses, the radiolucent follicle (dental sac) is
seen surrounding the crown of the tooth. is
is a sac containing the developing tooth and its
odontogenic organ.
foramen A normal radiolucent opening in bone.
foreshortening e distortion on a radiograph
that results in shortening of the image primarily
caused by excessive vertical angulation.
fossa A radiolucent depression in bone.
fracture e breaking of a part of an oral structure,
usually resulting in a radiolucency.
Frankfort plane e imaginary line connecting
the oor of the orbit and the superior border of
the external auditory meatus.
free radical An uncharged molecule that exists
with a single unpaired electron in its outer
shell.
frequency e number of oscillations that an
energy wave makes per second.
full-mouth series (full-mouth survey) A series
of intraoral radiographs that gives diagnostic
information for all teeth and desired bony areas.
It is usually composed of periapical and bite-
wing projections.
furcation e area between the roots of a multi-
rooted tooth.
fusion e developmental disturbance in which
two teeth are joined, resulting in a large crown
and two root canals.
G
gag reex e retching or coughing, caused by
contact of the receptor, or holding device with
the patient’s palate or other intraoral tissues.
gamma rays Electromagnetic radiation of short
wavelengths that emanate from radioactive
materials.
gelatin e material coating the cellulose acetate
base of lm in which the halide crystals are
suspended.
gemination e developmental disturbance of
teeth whereby a tooth has one root canal but
two crowns.
gene e basic unit of inheritance, located in
the chromosome, which determines hereditary
characteristics.
general supervision Referring to the fact that
the dentist need not be directly present during
a licensed sta member’s performance of duties.
genetic effects e changes produced in an indi-
vidual’s genes and chromosomes; usually refers to
those changes in reproductive cells.
genial tubercle e radiopacity seen apical to
the teeth on mandibular central incisor periapi-
cal radiographs at the midline of the mandible.
ghost image e objects that have the greatest
density (e.g., bone or metal objects) and are out
of the plane of acceptable detail (focal trough)
are shown in two places on the panoramic image.
One place is the intended image or the usable
image, and the other is referred to as the ghost
image. e ghost image is always reversed, has
less sharpness and is seen at a point higher on
the projection than the desired image.
gray (Gy) e Système International (SI) unit for
absorbed dose. One gray equals 100 rads.
gray level e density seen on a digital image.
grid A device used to prevent object scatter from
aecting the receptor.
group D lm An ANSI rating for intermediate-
speed lm.
group E lm An ANSI rating for fast lm.
group F lm An ANSI rating for the fastest lm
available.
H
H & D curve e H & D (Hunter and Drield)
curve is a plot that shows the relationship between
lm exposure and its resultant density.
half-value layer e thickness of a specic mate-
rial that attenuates the x-ray beam intensity to
one half. It is an expression of beam quality.
half-wave rectied e blocking of the reversal
of current across the dental x-ray tube.
halide Compound of metal with the halogen
element bromine, chlorine, or iodine.
hamular notch e radiolucent anatomic land-
mark that is located distal to the maxillary
tuberosity.
hamular process (hamulus) e radiopaque
bone that is located distal to the hamular notch.
hard copy e printout of a digital image.
headrest position Proper position of the patient’s
head for radiographic exposure.
Health Insurance Portability and Account-
ability Act (HIPAA) Enacted in April 2000
to ensure patient condentiality in healthcare
delivery.
hearing-impaired Physical disability that aects a
persons ability to hear eciently.
hemostat An instrument that can serve as an
intraoral receptor holder.
hepatitis Infectious disease categorized by inam-
mation of the liver caused by the hepatitis virus.
Dental personnel should be immunized (vacci-
nated) for the hepatitis B virus (HBV).
high contrast High contrast images appear mainly
black and white with very few gray tones, and the
densities (black and white) seen are easy to distin-
guish from each other. ey also are referred to
as short-scale contrast images and are produced
by a lower kilovoltage range.
horizontal angulation e aiming of the x-ray
beam in the horizontal plane.
horizontal bone loss Interproximal periodontal
bone loss in the horizontal plane.
Hounseld unit A unit used in computed tomo-
graphic scanning to express the density of a spe-
cic area of the image.
human immunodeciency virus (HIV) e
virus that compromises the immune system,
leading to acquired immunodeciency syndrome
(AIDS).

291Glossary
hypercementosis A condition that results in for-
mation of excess cementum on the root of a
tooth.
hyperdontia (supernumerary teeth) Super-
numerary, or extra, teeth. e most common
supernumerary teeth are mandibular premolars,
maxillary incisors, and fourth molars.
hyperostotic lines Clearly dened radiopaque
borders of slow-growing benign lesions.
hypodontia Is the failure of teeth to develop. It can
occur in either the primary or adult dentition.
I
illuminator See viewbox.
image A picture or representation of an object.
image acquisition Acquisition of a computerized
image in computed tomographic scanning and
digital radiography.
image density e degree of blackness on an
image.
image layer See focal trough.
image manipulation e changing or modica-
tion of a digital image.
image receptor e component of an imaging
system that the x-ray photons strike.
imaginary bisecting line e line that bisects
the angle formed by the long axis of the tooth
and the receptor.
imaging e visual representation of an object.
imaging plate Reusable plastic storage phosphor
sensor that is employed in indirect digital radiog-
raphy and is not wired to the computer but uses
a laser scanner to produce an image.
imaging system e lm, digital sensor, or lm-
screen combination that the x-rays strike to
produce the visible image.
immunization Protection of an individual from
a communicable disease achieved by giving the
patient a modied or weakened form of the caus-
ative microorganism.
impaction e condition of a tooth not being able
to erupt by its expected time.
implant xture e radiopaque metallic device
that is placed in the maxilla or mandible to
replace a missing tooth.
impulse e radiation generated during a half
cycle of an alternating current.
incipient caries Caries that radiographically is
only in the enamel.
incisive canal e radiolucent anatomic land-
mark in the maxillary anterior region that can
be seen leading to the incisive foramen.
incisive foramen See nasopalatine foramen.
indirect digital radiography A kind of digital
radiography in which the nished radiograph is
scanned to produce a digital image.
indirect effects Cell damage caused when the
cells hit directly by radiation produce toxins that
aect cells not in the radiation beam.
infection Contamination caused by disease-pro-
ducing microorganisms.
infectious waste Waste that is contaminated
with blood, saliva, or other body uids.
inferior alveolar canal (mandibular canal) e
radiolucent band seen on mandibular molar and
premolar radiographs. It originates at the man-
dibular foramen and runs downward and forward
to end at the mental foramen.
inferior border of the mandible A broad radi-
opaque band that represents the thick cortical
bone of the inferior portion of the mandible. e
inferior border of the mandible can be seen in all
of the intraoral mandibular projections.
inferior nasal concha (turbinate) e radiopac-
ity that sometimes projects into the nasal fossa
from its lateral wall and can be seen on maxil-
lary anterior radiographs.
informed consent e permission granted or
implied by the patient to allow treatment to be
rendered after a full explanation of the treatment
has been made.
infrabony pocket e area created and seen on
radiographs as the result of crestal bone loss.
intensifying screen A coating of uorescent
material on a suitable base that intensies the
radiation, thus permitting a decrease in expo-
sure time.
intensity e product of the quantity and the
quality of the x-ray beam per unit of area per
time of exposure.
interaction e result of radiation reacting with
any form of matter.
internal oblique ridge (mylohyoid ridge) e
radiopaque line that is seen running anteriorly
on radiographs from the ascending ramus to the
genial tubercles of the mandible that appears
longer and lower than the external oblique
ridge.
internal resorption e process in which pulpal
cells resorb the walls of the pulp chamber or
canal to form a communication to the periodon-
tal ligament.
interpretation An explanation of radiographic
ndings.
interproximal caries Caries on the mesial or
distal surfaces of teeth that are best viewed on
bitewing radiographs.
intraofce peer review e evaluation mecha-
nism for maintaining superior levels of chair-
side technique between personnel within a dental
oce.
inverse square law An expression of the relation-
ship between the exposure time and focal-lm
distance (target-receptor distance). is law states
that the intensity of radiation is inversely pro-
portional to the square of the distance between a
point source and the irradiated surface.
ion An electrically charged (+ or –) particle of
matter.
ionization e process by which an electrically
stable or neutral atom or molecule gains or loses
electrons and thereby acquires a positive or neg-
ative charge.
ionizing radiation e property of radiation that
produces ions when interacting with matter.
isotope An atom whose nucleus has the same
number of protons but a dierent number of
neutrons.
K
kilovoltage (kilovolt) (kV) An electric potential
dierence as measured in kilovolts (a unit of mea-
surement equal to 1000 V). Controls the quality
of the x-ray beam in the dental x-ray tube.
kilovolt peak (kVp) A unit of measurement
used in dental radiology to express the kilo-
voltage setting on the control panel. It implies
that not all the x-rays generated are of the pen-
etrating power called for; rather, the numerical
setting is the peak and is usually employed with
x-ray machines that operate on an alternating
current.
L
labial mounting A means of mounting and
viewing processed radiographs so that the observ-
er’s point of view is looking into the patient’s
mouth with the patient’s right side on the view-
er’s left.
lamina dura A radiopaque line of cortical bone
that surrounds the periodontal ligament sur-
rounding the tooths root.
laminogram (tomogram) A radiograph of a three-
dimensional object that shows a predetermined
plane clearly while blurring out all other super-
imposed structures.
latent image e term used to describe the x-ray
lm after it has been exposed. e lm contains
the latent image that will be made visible by lm
processing.
latent period e delay between exposure of
an organism to radiation and manifestation of
change produced by that radiation.
lateral fossa A depression in the labial plate in
the maxillary lateral incisor region. It appears
as a radiolucency between the maxillary lateral
incisor and canine.
lateral oblique projection of the mandi-
ble Projection used for surveying one side of
the mandible.
lateral skull projection (cephalometric pro-
jection) An extraoral radiograph that shows the
entire skull in the sagittal plane.
lead apron e exible lead or lead-equivalent
drape placed over the patients torso to shield
from secondary radiation.
lead foil backing One of the components of the
intraoral lm packet that prevents backscatter.
lead-lined boxes Shielded boxes used in the past,
for unprotected lm that over time may con-
taminate the lm with an oxidized leaded white
powder.
liability e responsibility for a deed or decision.
licensure e permission granted by a govern-
mental body that allows one to work in his or
her profession.
light leak e area where unwanted white light is
entering a darkroom.
light-tight A term used in radiography to indicate
that there is no white light exposure.
line pairs per millimeter A measure of contrast
discrimination (gray levels) in an image.
lingual caries Demineralization of the hard tooth
structure on the lingual surface of a tooth.
lingual foramen A radiolucent opening in the
lingual surface of the mandibular anterior bony
structure and appears at the center of the genial
tubercles on a radiograph.
lingual mounting A means of mounting and
viewing processed radiographs so that the observ-
er’s point of view is looking at the teeth from
within the patient’s mouth with the patient’s
right side on the viewer’s right and the patient’s
left side on the viewer’s left.
litigious Tending to bring legal action.
localization Locating radiographic structures, par-
ticularly in the buccolingual plane.
localized exposure e measurement of radia-
tion to the area of the body that is in the path of
the direct beam of radiation.
localizing ring e extraoral part of an intraoral
paralleling receptor-holding device that aligns the
x-ray beam with the lm or sensor (receptor).
long axis e imaginary line that divides the tooth
vertically in two halves.
long cone Used to refer to position-indicating
devices on x-ray machines where the target-
receptor (focal-lm) distance is 16 in or
greater.
long-scale contrast Film contrast in which the
gray tone is predominant.
long-term effects Eects of radiation that appear
years or decades after exposure to radiation.
low contrast See long-scale contrast.
M
magnetic eld e eld used in MRI that changes
the alignment and orientation of the protons in
the patient’s body.
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) An
imaging modality that uses magnetic elds and

292 Glossary
radio frequencies to view pathologic lesions in the
soft tissues of the body.
magnication e proportional enlargement of a
radiographic image.
malignant growth (malignancy or malignant
lesion) A type of tumor that can be locally
destructive or metastasize and can result in a
fatality.
malposed A tooth that is out of line with the
dental arch.
mandibular canal (inferior alveolar canal) See
inferior alveolar canal.
mandibular foramen Appears radiolucent on
radiographs and is where the mandibular (infe-
rior alveolar) canal originates. e mandibular
foramen cannot be seen on intraoral radiographs.
mandibular tori (torus mandibularis) A specif-
ically placed exostosis that is bilateral, appears
radiopaque, and is located in the mandibular pre-
molar region on dental radiographs.
manual processing e process of developing
radiographs where the lm hangers are manually
placed in the processing solutions.
marking grid e device used to superimpose
either radiopaque or radiolucent lines in 1-mm
vertical and horizontal increments.
mass number e number of nucleons (protons
and neutrons) in the nucleus of an atom.
maxillary sinus e radiolucent area seen apical
to the maxillary posterior teeth.
maxillary torus (torus palatinus) A specically
placed exostosis at the midline of the palate that
appears radiopaque on dental radiographs.
maxillary tuberosity e distal portion of the
maxillary alveolar ridge.
maxillofacial radiology at specialty of den-
tistry concerned with exposure and inter-
pretation of diagnostic imaging used for
examining the craniofacial, dental, and adjacent
structures.
maximum permissible dose (MPD) e
amount of whole-body radiation to which an
occupationally exposed person (or the general
public) can be exposed to without any harm
during a specic period of time (i.e. yearly).
median palatal suture e radiolucent line seen
running vertically between the roots of the max-
illary central incisors.
medullary spaces Radiolucent areas seen in bone
representing the bone marrow.
mental foramen e round radiolucent area seen
near the apices of the mandibular premolars.
mental ridge e V-shaped radiopacity seen in
mandibular anterior radiographs.
mesiodens A supernumerary tooth found in the
midline of the maxillary arch.
metabolic lesion A radiographic nding caused
by a generalized pathologic condition.
microorganism An organism, such as bacteria, of
microscopic or ultramicroscopic size.
midsagittal plane e imaginary line that divides
the skull in equal parts in the sagittal plane.
milliamperage (mA) Current strength expressed
in milliamperes (one thousandth of an ampere).
e mA setting controls the quantity of the x-ray
beam in the dental x-ray tube.
milliroentgen (mR) One thousandth of a
roentgen.
mixed dentition Both primary and secondary
teeth are present in the oral cavity.
mixed lesion A radiographic lesion that has both
radiolucent and radiopaque components.
molecule e smallest particle of a substance that
retains the properties of the substance.
monitor Computer image screen used in digital
radiography.
monitoring device e instrument that measures
radiation exposure.
mounts e cardboard or plastic sheets used to
hold and view a nished radiograph.
Multiplanar reconstructed images (MPR
images) When these axial, coronal, and sag-
ittal CBCT images are viewed simultaneously.
mutation e chemical eect of a change in a gene
or a chromosomal aberration.
mylohyoid ridge See internal oblique ridge.
N
nasal cavity e bilateral radiolucent areas seen
superior to the maxillary central incisors.
nasal septum e radiopaque vertical line sepa-
rating the right and left nasal cavities.
nasolabial fold A radiolucent area seen distal to
the canine.
nasopalatine (incisive) foramen e oval radio-
lucent landmark located between the roots of the
maxillary central incisors.
negligent Failure to exercise the care that a
prudent person would usually exercise in the
same situation.
neutron A particle that has no charge but has mass.
It is found in the nucleus of an atom.
nucleus e positively charged, relatively heavy
inner core of an atom.
normalizing device e device utilized in the
procedure for testing the strength of the proc-
essing solutions. is procedure involves placing
the processed lm in a slot and moving the mea-
sured densities until a visual match of densities
is achieved. If the test densities are too light, the
solutions are too weak or too cold. If the densi-
ties are too dark, the solutions are too concen-
trated or too warm.
nutrient canals Pathways for blood vessels and
nerves that appear as radiolucent vertical lines
in alveolar bone.
O
object e structure being radiographed, such as
tooth or bone.
object density e density (thickness) of the
teeth, bone, and soft tissue being radiographed,
which is determined by the structure of the object
being radiographed, and the image density, which
is the degree of blackness on an image.
object-lm distance e distance between the
object and the x-ray lm. Currently known as
the object-receptor distance.
object-receptor distance See object-lm dis-
tance.
occlusal caries Caries that are found on the
biting surfaces of teeth and are usually not seen
well on radiographs.
occlusal receptor A large intraoral receptor (#4)
placed on the occlusal surfaces of either the upper
or lower teeth and used to portray objects in the
buccolingual dimension.
occlusal plane e imaginary plane formed by
the occlusal contact of upper and lower teeth.
occlusal projection A radiographic projection of
the mandible or maxilla that shows either a larger
area or a right-angle (axial) relationship of the
objects being radiographed.
Occupational Safety and Health Administra-
tion (OSHA) e federal agency that oversees
health and safety in the workplace.
oligodontia e absence of many teeth (many
missing teeth).
open contact When the interproximal surfaces of
teeth or restorations do not touch.
operator concern Radiation concerns that lie
with the operator.
Optically scanned digital radiography e
process in indirect digital imaging whereby a
nished conventional radiograph is scanned and
then digitized and the information is sent to the
computer.
orbit A prescribed path or ring in which electrons
travel around the nucleus of an atom.
orientation dot is is a small, convex-concave
area that indicates which side of the lm was
facing the tooth and the source of radiation and
helps to orient the developed lm in mounting.
osteoradionecrosis An area of bone does not
heal from the high levels of radiation used in
radiation therapy.
output e amount of radiation produced by
the x-ray machine (measured in roentgens per
second).
overdeveloped e condition of a radiograph
being too dark because of the lms having been
left in the developer solution too long.
overexposure A dark or dense image due to
improper settings (kV, mA, exposure time)
causing excessive exposure due to overpenetra-
tion of the x-ray beam.
overlapping e interproximal surfaces of adjoin-
ing teeth are superimposed on each other because
of improper horizontal angulation or improper
placement of the receptor in the horizontal
plane.
overretention e state of the deciduous teeth
not being shed at the expected time.
P
packet A wrapping or container for intraoral x-ray
lm that is light-tight and permits penetration of
x-rays. Packets are usually made of plastic, paper
or cardboard.
panoramic image An extraoral radiograph that
shows both the mandible and the maxilla and
other structures out of the realm of intraoral
radiographs in their entirety on a single image.
Panorex e commercial name for one of the ear-
liest panoramic units.
pantomogram A panoramic radiograph produced
by curved surface tomography.
paperless ofce A dental oce where all records,
including radiographs and photographs, are pro-
duced and stored in digital form on a computer.
parallel Moving or lying in the same plane, equi-
distant, and never intersecting.
paralleling technique A technique for intraoral
periapical radiography in which the receptor is
positioned parallel to the long axis of the tooth
and the central ray is directed perpendicular to
both the tooth and the receptor.
pathogen A disease-causing microorganism.
patient concern Radiation concerns that lie with
the patient.
patient movement When a patient moves during
an exposure causing a blurred radiographic image.
penetration e ability of x-rays to pass through
an object and reach the receptor.
penumbra e vague or blurred area that sur-
rounds the edge of the radiographic image.
periapical abscess A type of periapical patho-
logic process whereby an abscess forms at the
apex of a tooth.
periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia
(PCOD) (periapical cemental dysplasia -
PCD) A three-stage asymptomatic lesion seen
on mandibular anterior periapical radiographs.
periapical condensing osteitis e apical bony
response to low-level infection that appears radi-
opaque on dental radiographs.
periapical cyst A cyst formed at the apex of a
tooth.

293Glossary
periapical projection Intraoral image represent-
ing the entire tooth from the incisal or occlusal
surface to the apex of the root and 2-3 mm of
surrounding bone.
periapical granuloma A granuloma formed at
the apex of a tooth.
periapical lesions Radiolucent or radiopaque
lesions appearing at the apex of the tooth.
periapical pathologic condition e infectious
condition that arises at the apex of a tooth as the
sequela of pulpal necrosis.
periapical radiograph An intraoral image that
shows the entire tooth and surrounding bony
structures.
period of injury is period occurs after radiation
exposure and the latent period, and can include
changes in the cell’s or tissue’s function.
periodontal abscess A soft tissue abscess of the
gingiva that is seen as a radiolucency interproxi-
mally on radiographs.
periodontal disease Disease of the supportive
structures of the teeth.
periodontal ligament Radiolucent area around
the root of the tooth between the cementum
and the lamina dura.
permissible dose e amount of radiation that
one can receive without suering any clinical
eects.
personal protective equipment (PPE) Personal
barriers to the transmission of infective micro-
organisms including gloves, masks, protective
eyewear, and protective clothing that must be
worn in the dental environment.
perpendicular Intersecting or meeting at a 90-
degree angle.
phosphor A substance that when struck by radia-
tion will emit light.
photoelectric effect An interaction of an x-ray
photon with an atom in which an inner shell
electron is released and the total energy of the
photon is absorbed.
photon A discrete unit of energy.
photostimulable phosphor plate An electronic
sensor used in indirect digital radiography that is
read by a laser beam scanner.
physical disability A condition that limits the
patient’s ability to perform certain movements.
pixel A discrete point of information utilized in
digital radiography to produce the digital image.
pocket dosimeters Small ionization chambers
that the operator wears to measure radiation
occupational exposure.
point of entry Anatomic location on the patient’s
face at which the central x-ray is aimed so that
the x-rays strike the center of the receptor in the
patient’s mouth.
point of rotation A point in a tomographic unit
around which the sensor and source of energy
rotate.
position-indicating device (PID) at part of
the x-ray machine (cone, rectangle, or cylinder)
that aligns the useful beam to the object and
receptor.
posteroanterior projection e companion pro-
jection to the lateral skull used to survey the
skull in the anteroposterior plane, which pro-
vides a means of localizing changes in a medio-
lateral direction.
pregnancy e condition in which a woman is
carrying a fetus in her womb.
primary dentition e rst (deciduous) set of
teeth.
primary radiation X-rays coming directly from
the target of the x-ray tube.
primordial cyst A cyst seen in the jaws that forms
instead of a tooth.
progeny e descendants of an individual.
proton A positively charged particle that has mass.
It is found in the nucleus of an atom.
pterygomaxillary ssure It is a radiopaque out-
lined triangular interval, formed by the diver-
gence of the maxilla from the pterygoid process
of the sphenoid bone. It appears as an inverted
teardrop on extraoral radiographs.
pulp calcications e condition in which the
pulp canals and chambers are completely lled
with dentin.
pulp canal and chamber e space within the
crown and root of the teeth where the soft tissue
of the pulp is found.
pulp denticle (pulp stone) A calcication formed
in either the pulp chamber or the pulp canal.
pulp horns An extension of the pulp extending
toward the cusp of a tooth.
Q
quality assurance (QA) program A series of
tests and procedures to ensure that all compo-
nents of the radiographic system are functioning
at an acceptable level of quality so as to ensure
the best radiograph for the radiation exposure.
quality factor An expression of the dierent types
of eects that radiation produces in human tissue
(for x-rays, Q = 1).
R
radiation e emission and propagation of energy
in the form of waves or particles.
radiation absorbed dose (rad) A unit of
absorbed radiation equal to 100 ergs per gram.
In dental radiology, 1 rad is equal to approxi-
mately 1 roentgen.
radiation caries e type of caries caused by a
decrease and changes in saliva secondary to radi-
ation therapy of the head and neck.
radiation exposure e process of being struck
by radiation, either primary or secondary.
radiation history e record of a patient’s expo-
sure to radiation for diagnostic and therapeu-
tic needs.
radiation inspection e monitoring of x-ray
equipment and procedures by some governmen-
tal body or CRESO (certied radiation equip-
ment safety ocer).
radiation risk e likelihood of ill eects from
radiation.
radioactive process e process whereby certain
unstable elements undergo spontaneous degen-
eration and produce high-energy waves called
gamma and particulate radiations.
radiobiology Is the study of the eects of ionizing
radiation on biologic tissue.
radiofrequency e frequency in the electro-
magnetic spectrum at which radio waves are
found.
radiograph e visual image produced by chemi-
cally processing the eects of x-rays on lm or the
dental image that appears on a computer monitor
as a result of digital radiography.
radiolucent (RL) Refers to areas on the radiograph
that appear dark. ese objects have little or no
density.
radiolucent lesion A pathologic lesion that is
dark on radiographs.
radionuclide A radioactive substance.
radiopaque (RO) Refers to areas on the radio-
graph that appear light. ese are objects that
are dense.
radiopaque lesion A pathologic lesion that is
light on radiographs.
radiopaque medium A liquid that is injected
into body vessels or spaces whose outline is
radiopaque on the radiograph for diagnostic
pruposes.
radioresistant cell A cell that is relatively unaf-
fected by radiation.
radiosensitive cell A cell that is sensitive to
radiation.
rapid processing e processing of radiographs
by either elevated solution temperature or con-
centration, which markedly shortens the time
needed to produce an image. is technique is
used when the time it takes to process the lm is
shortened and is more important than the exact-
ing of the image.
rare earth elements A group of metallic ele-
ments that contain oxides classied as rare earths.
Such elements are used in intensifying screens to
produce light.
receptor e material (lm, lm screen, or digital
sensor) that is aected by the x-ray beam and
from which the visible image is formed.
receptor holder e device that holds and posi-
tions the receptor (e.g., lm) in the patient’s
mouth.
receptor (lm or sensor) plane e plane
(axial, sagittal, or coronal) in which the receptor
(lm or sensor) is held for radiographic exposure.
receptor (lm or sensor) position e descrip-
tion of the relationship between the receptor
(lm or sensor) and the teeth to be radiographed.
recessed target e design of a dental x-ray
machine in which the tube is positioned at the
back of the tube head that allows for a 12-in to
16-in target-receptor (focal-lm) distance and a
short position-indicating device (PID).
recessed tube An x-ray tube that is placed in the
rear part of the tube head, with the rest of the
components placed on both sides of the beam.
is design extends the focal distance without
increasing the length of the position-indicating
device.
record keeping Keeping accurate records of lms
processed, mounted, and led as an important
part of a QA program in a dental facility.
records e written or electronic description and
images of treatment given to a patient.
rectangular collimation Limiting the shape of
an x-ray beam to a rectangle instead of the con-
ventional circle.
rectication Blocking of the ow of current in
one direction in an alternating current circuit.
reference lm An ideally processed lm, which is
kept on the darkroom viewbox, to which densi-
ties and contrasts can be compared to check the
strength of the processing solutions.
reformatting In computed tomography, chang-
ing the plane of orientation in which the image
is portrayed.
replenisher A concentrated form of either the
developer or xer solutions that is used to
maintain the volume and concentration of the
solutions.
res gestae Admissions against interest” – ese
are statements made by anyone spontaneously at
the time of an alleged negligent act that are then
considered admissible as evidence.
residual cyst A cyst that was not removed with
the extraction of the tooth and continues to grow.
residual granuloma A granuloma that was not
removed with the extraction of the tooth and
continues to grow.
resolution e discernible separation of closely
adjacent image details.
resonance e transition from one energy level
to another.
respondeat superior e legal doctrine that
states that liability, both professionally and

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287Glossaryanalog Relating to a mechanism in which data are represented by continuously variable physi-cal quantities.angstrom unit (Å) A unit of measurement equal to one-millionth of a centimeter; x-ray wave-lengths are expressed in angstrom units.angulation e direction of the primary x-ray beam in relation to the tooth and receptor.anode e positively charged side of the dental x-ray tube. It contains the tungsten target at which the electrons are aimed and from which x-rays are emitted.anodontia e developmental absence of teeth. It can be complete or partial.ANSI See American National Standards Institute.anterior nasal spine e radiopacity seen in the midline of the maxilla at the inferior termination of the nasal septum.anterior palatine foramen e opening in the midline of the palate just posterior to the central incisors through which vessels and nerves emerge.anteroposterior projection An extraoral radio-graph of the skull seen in the coronal plane.antibiotic prophylaxis e antimicrobial drugs prescribed before dental treatment for patients whose medical conditions can be aected by a bacteremia resulting from dental treatment.antiseptic A substance that inhibits the growth of bacteria.antral or inverted “Y” e radiopaque “Y” formed by the anterior and inferior border of the maxillary sinus as the arms and the oor of the nasal cavity as the stem which is useful in the mounting orientation of maxillary canine projections.arch e formation of teeth seen in the axial plane.arthrography Modality for radiographic evalua-tion of a bone joint after injection of a radi-opaque contrast medium.atom e basic unit of matter, composed of a pos-itively charged nucleus around which negatively charged electrons revolve.atomic mass e total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom and is desig-nated by the letter A.atomic number e number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. e symbol is Z, and it is written as the subscript, for example, 3Li.attenuation Absorbing or weakening of an x-ray beam because of passage through a material.attrition e wearing away of teeth by occlusal forces.autoclaving e sterilizing of instruments by steam.automatic processing e processing of radio-graphs by machine, eliminating the need for human interaction to move the lms through the processing solutions. is technique employs a standardized procedure for processing lms as Aabrasion e wearing away of tooth structure by mechanical means (e.g., toothbrush).absorption A process in which the intensity of a beam of radiation is reduced as a result of the interactions involved in passing through matter.acquired immunodeciency syndrome (AIDS) e group of disease entities caused by the human immunodeciency virus (HIV).actual focal area e true representation of the area of the anode of an x-ray tube that the elec-trons actually strike.acute (short-term) effects e eects of radi-ation that manifest themselves within minutes, days, or weeks after exposure.administrative radiograph A radiograph taken for other than diagnostic purposes, such as a radiograph taken for verication of third-party payment.advanced caries Caries that has penetrated through the dentin and is about to reach the pulp chamber.ALARA principle (concept) e acronym for as low as reasonably achievable. is term refers to reducing radiation exposure to patients as much as possible within the dental oce without exces-sive cost or inconvenience to the patient.ala-tragus line An imaginary line between the ala of the nose and the tragus of the ear that is kept parallel to the oor particularly for panoramic radiographs.alpha particle A positively charged particle emitted from an atomic nucleus.alternating current (AC) Current that ows in one direction and then in the opposite direction in the circuit.alveolar bone e bone of the mandible and maxilla that supports and surrounds the roots of the teeth.alveolar crest e most coronal portion of the alveolar bone found between the teeth.amelogenesis imperfecta e hereditary devel-opmental defect of enamel seen in both the primary and secondary dentition.American Academy of Oral and Maxillofa-cial Radiology (AAOMR) An organization established to promote and advance the art and science of radiology in dentistry and to provide a forum for communication among and profes-sional advancement of its members.American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Institute that designates lm speed (sen-sitivity) by using the letters A through F (A for the slowest lm and F for the fastest).Amperage (ampere) (A) e unit of measure-ment of the amount of current owing in an electric circuit. e unit milliampere (mA) is one-thousandth of an ampere and is the important unit of current measurement pertaining to an x-ray tube.it is basically an automated time-temperature method.autotransformer A transformer that has only one coil and a series of taps that allow it to increase or reduce voltage.axial plane e plane of the head that is paral-lel to the oor.Bbackground radiation e ever-present manmade or naturally occurring ionizing radi-ation in the environment. Its sources include cosmic rays, radon, radioactive materials, indus-trial waste, and nuclear fallout.barrier A radiation-absorbing material such as lead, concrete, or plaster used to protect an area from radiation. e term also refers to protec-tion used against microorganisms, such as the use of gloves, masks, glasses, and surface coverings.barrier envelope A plastic bag that the x-ray lm packet is placed in to prevent contamination by saliva.becquerel (Bq) e Système International (SI) unit of radioactivity produced by the disin-tegration of unstable elements. It replaces the curie.bedridden A term used to describe a patient who cannot leave his or her bed; such patients cannot travel to a dental oce to have radiographs exposed on them or receive dental treatment.benign lesion A term applied to tumors that may be harmful but not life-threatening.beta particles Electrons emitted from the nuclei of radioactive atoms.bilateral lesion A lesion that is on both sides of the oral cavity. Most bilateral ndings are normal anatomic landmarks.binding energy e energy (expressed in electron volts) that binds the orbiting electrons around the nucleus of an atom.biopsy An examination of tissue removed from a living body to discover the presence, cause, or extent of a disease.bisecting-angle technique (bisecting the angle) A technique for intraoral periapical radi-ography in which the receptor is positioned as close to the tooth as possible and the central x-ray is directed vertically perpendicular to an imagi-nary line that bisects the angle formed by the long axis of the tooth and the receptor .bite block A device used to support and position dental receptors in the patient’s mouth.bitewing projections (radiographs) Intraoral images that show only the crown portions of opposing teeth in the biting position primarily utilized to view interproximal areas.blurred image An image showing decreased detail and denition as a result of patient, lm, or x-ray source movement during an exposure.bone marrow e soft inner portion of bone. 288 Glossarybone window e density range in computed tomography in which bone images are seen without superimposition of soft tissue.bremsstrahlung (general) radiation Liter-ally braking radiation, the release of a photon of energy by a bombarding electron slowed and bent o course by an atom.buccal caries Demineralization of the hard tissue structure present on the outside surface of the tooth that is dicult to detect radiographically.buccal-object rule In localization, if an object on a second radiograph moves in the opposite direc-tion of the horizontal tube shift, then the object is buccally positioned.buccinator shadow e radiopaque area seen mostly in the maxillary premolar area that repre-sents the soft tissue density of the muscle in the cheek (buccinator muscle).Ccalibration procedure When dental x-ray machines are adjusted for accuracy at regular intervals. X-ray machine calibration is performed by a competent technician to conrm that the radiographic equipment is functioning properly in producing consistently diagnostically accept-able radiographic images.calcication Hardening of a structure caused by calcium deposition.calcium tungstate e uorescent material used to coat intensifying screens, emitting a blue light.calculus e radiopaque calcication concretion that adheres to the teeth.cancellous bone Bone that is composed mainly of marrow.caries Demineralization of the hard tooth struc-ture with subsequent destruction. Appears radio-lucent on radiographs.cassette A wrapping or container for x-ray lm that is light-tight yet permits penetration of x-rays. Cassettes may be plastic, cardboard, or metal.cathode e negatively charged side of the dental x-ray tube. It contains the tungsten lament and the molybdenum focusing cup.cathode ray e stream of electrons in the x-ray tube traveling from lament to target.cell recovery e process by which cells heal themselves from the eects of radiation.cementoenamel junction at place on the tooth where the enamel ends and the cemen-tum begins.cemento-osseous dysplasia (COD) Is a con-dition of the jaws that is inherently a benign lesion. It arises from the broblasts of the peri-odontal ligaments.cementum e calcied tissue that surrounds the root and helps to support the tooth.centers of roatation In tomography, the point around which the source of radiation rotates. e center of rotation changes as the receptor and x-ray source rotate which allows the image layer (focal trough) to conform to the shape of the dental arches.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) e U.S. governmental agency based in Atlanta, Georgia, that is responsible for tracking and responding to outbreaks of infectious disease.central ray at x-ray located in the center of the x-ray beam as it leaves the tube head.cephalometric radiography e modality for measuring the skull by means of radiography.cephalostat e head-holding device used in cephalometric radiography.Certied Radiation Equipment Safety Ofcer (CRESO) ose who perform the inspection and calibration of x-ray equipment. eir respon-sibilities include performing checks on the kilo-voltage, milliamperage, output, timer accuracy, tube head stability, and x-ray beam alignment of the dental x-ray unit.cervical burnout e shadow seen interproxi-mally on radiographs that is caused by the con-cavity in the root surface at that area. It may resemble caries.chair position e position of the chair and its head rest and back rest during radiographic procedures.characteristic radiation X-rays produced when orbiting electrons in an atom fall from outer shells to inner shells after an orbiting electron is knocked out of one of the inner shells by bom-barding electrons.charge-coupled device (CCD) A type of elec-tronic sensor used in direct digital radiography.chromosomes One of a denite number of rodlike bodies, containing genes, found in the nucleus of a cell. At the time of cell division, they duplicate, divide, and distribute evenly in the resulting cells.chronic effects See long-term eects.clear lm A lm that after processing does not show an image.cleft palate e developmental condition in which embryonic fusion of the palate fails to occur.clusters e high incidence of cancers in certain geographic areas.coherent scatter An interaction of x-rays with matter in which the path of the x-ray is deviated without a loss of energy.coin test A test carried out in the darkroom to test the eectiveness of the safelight.collimation e process of restricting the size and shape of the x-ray beam.collimator A device that limits the size and shape of the x-ray beam.collimator cutoff (cone cutting) A curved or straight radiopaque border representing an unex-posed area on the image caused by not center-ing the x-ray beam on the receptor while using a circular- (cylindrical) or rectangular-shaped PID.complementary metal oxide semiconduc-tor (CMOS) A type of electronic sensor used in direct digital radiography.composite Synthetic restoration primarily used in anterior regions.Compton effect An interaction between x-rays and matter whereby the x-ray photon is deected from its path after dislodging a loosely bound elec-tron from an atom. is interaction takes place about 62% of the time in dental radiography.computed tomography (CT) scanning Tomo-graphic process in which x-ray scanning produces digital data that measure the extent of the energy transmission through an object. is information is stored and transformed by a computer into a density scale that is used to generate an image.concavity A depression.concha e radiopaque outgrowth of tissue from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity.concrescence e condition in which two or more teeth are joined by their cementum.condensing osteitis A condition character-ized by the formation of dense bone around the apex of a tooth in response to low-grade pulpal necrosis.cone e pointed position-indicating device on the dental x-ray machine through which the x-rays travel after leaving the tube.cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) A more recent means to acquire a CT image for dental purposes and is also known as cone beam volumetric tomography (CBVT). is tech-nique involves use of a round or rectangular cone-shaped x-ray beam on a two-dimensional x-ray sensor.cone cutting e error produced by not centering the x-ray beam on the receptor, producing unex-posed areas on the image while using a cone-shaped PID .condentiality e state of being free from unau-thorized disclosure. For example, material in a dental chart is condential information.congenital A condition that is present at birth.contrast e dierence in densities between adja-cent areas on the radiograph.coronal plane An orientation plane that divides the head into front and back portions.coronoid process of the mandible e mesial superior radiopaque part of the ascending ramus of the mandible that is seen in the distal infe-rior portions of maxillary molar periapical radiographs.cortical bone e dense outer layer of the man-dible and maxilla.cosmic ray Radiation that has its origin outside of the Earth’s atmosphere (e.g., radiation from the sun).coulombs/kg e unit for expressing x-ray expo-sure in the SI system.CRESO See Certied Radiation Equipment Safety Ocer.crest e height of an energy (i.e. x-ray) wave.critical organ An organ that if damaged by radia-tion will seriously aect a patient’s quality of life.cross-contamination e spreading of micro-organisms from one instrument or patient to another.crown-root ratio e relationship between the length of the tooth that is embedded in bone and the part that is not.CT number A number indicating the density of a tissue on a CT scan.Cummulaive effective dose (CUMEfd) e accumulated lifetime dose of radiation that dental personnel should not exceed.cumulative effects ese are eects that are addi-tive, as repetitive exposure can damage cells that are not repaired and can lead to health problems.cupping e change of shape seen radiographi-cally in the crest of the interseptal bone that is cup-shaped.curie (Ci) e unit of measurement of the number of nuclear disintegrations of a radioac-tive element. e curie was superseded by the becquerel in 1985.cut A tomographic plane.cycle (of electric current) e sine wave plot of the change in polarity of an alternating current circuit in which the current travels rst in the positive direction and then in the negative direction.cyst A pathologic radiolucent lesion in which a bone cavity is lined by epithelium.Ddark (dense) image A dense or black image.darkroom A room with controlled lighting where x-ray lm is handled and processed.darkroom maintenance Steps taken to ensure quality assurance in the darkroom.daylight loader e device attached to an auto-matic processor that allows the operator to develop lm in ambient light.Deciduous teeth e primary dentition.denition (detail) e degree of clarity on a radio-graph. 289Glossarydenitive diagnosis A nal diagnosis that is made after getting the results of all performed diagnos-tic examinations (i.e. prescribed radiographs).dens invaginatus A developmental disturbance whereby the enamel organ invaginates into the pulp of the tooth.Dense (dark) image A dark or black image.density (receptor) e degree of blackness on a radiograph.density (object) e relative mass of an object through which an x-ray beam passes, causing it to appear radiopaque or radiolucent.dental papilla Appears at the root apex as the newly erupted tooth progresses into the oral cavity.deterministic or nonstochastic effects ese eects have a clear relationship between the expo-sure and the eect. In addition, the magnitude of the eect is directly proportional to the size of the dose.dentigerous cyst (follicular cyst) A cyst that develops from the enamel organ of a tooth. It may contain the tooth or be adjacent to it.dentin Comprises the major part of the tooth structure and is seen in both the crown and the root portions of the tooth. Dentin is radiopaque on radiographs.dentinogenesis imperfecta A hereditary distur-bance that aects both the primary and second-ary dentition. It is characterized by poor enamel that may wear thin or chip, early calcication of the pulp chambers and canals, and short roots, especially noticeable in the permanent teeth.dentoalveolar abscess An abscess in bone resulting from a necrotic pulp.detail See denition.detector e digital electronic sensor (receptor) that is used in digital radiographic techniques to produce an image of the oral structures after it is exposed to x-radiation and is connected to a com-puter in some manner.developer e solution used in the processing of exposed x-ray lm that softens the emulsion and precipitates silver from the silver bromide crys-tals of the lm emulsion that have been ener-gized by x-rays.developer cutoff e blank area on processed radiographs that results from an insucient level of solution in the darkroom developer tank.developmental disability Patients who are men-tally disabled or have other physical conditions, such as cerebral palsy or autism, and are aicted before the age of 22.diaphragm e lead-collimating device found in the dental x-ray machine that limits the beam size.DICOM images e digital receptor receives the information generated by the radiation exposure. is raw data is three-dimensional, goes through reconstruction, and forms a pile of images known as DICOM images. ese images are transferred to the software that allows the dental professional to view the area of interest (FOV) in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes.differential diagnosis e process that the diag-nostician goes through with the use of radio-graphs, clinical examination, and patient history to formulate a diagnosis.digital image An image formed by a computer after the conversion of analog penetration data to digital expression.digitize Convert to numbers.dilaceration A developmental disturbance that results in an abnormally curved root or crown.dimensional accuracy e accurate dimensional relationship of one part of a tooth to another on a radiographic image.dimensional distortion e distortion seen pri-marily with the bisecting-angle technique in which parts of the object farther from the recep-tor are foreshortened in relation to parts of the object that are closer to the receptor (e.g., the buccal roots of maxillary molars versus the palatal root).direct current (DC) Electric current that ows in one direction and does not reverse itself.direct digital radiography Digital modality that involves use of a (wired or wireless) sensor that has a direct relationship to the computer, with the sensor being either a charge-coupled device or a complementary metal oxide semiconductor.direct effects of radiation Radiation eects that are the results of the x-radiation striking the aected cell.direct supervision Referring to the physical pres-ence of the dentist during a sta member’s per-formance of duties.disability A physical or mental condition that limits or impairs a person’s life activities.disclosure e process of informing the patient about the risks and benets of a procedure.disinfection e process of destroying disease-causing microorganisms by physical or chemi-cal means.distodens (distomolar, paramolar, or fourth molar) A supernumerary tooth seen distal to the third molar.distortion A change in the size or shape of an object seen on a radiograph.divergent beam e primary beam of x-radiation that spreads as it leaves the tube.dose e amount of radiation energy absorbed per unit mass of tissue at a particular site.dose equivalent A concept that allows for the fact that not all radiations are identical in bio-logic eects. e dose equivalent is expressed in rems or sieverts.dose rate e dose in rads or grays absorbed per unit of time.dose-response curve e plot of the eect of radiation as a function of the dose given.double exposure An error in which the same lm packet is used twice, producing superim-posed images.double lm packet A dental lm packet in which there are two pieces of lm.drying A step in the processing of radiographs where any residual water is removed.duplicating lm A reversal lm used to replicate original images.duty cycle e portion of every minute that the dental x-ray machine can be used without overheating.duty rating e number of consecutive seconds in a minute that a dental x-ray machine can be oper-ated without overheating.Eeffective dose A calculation that considers the dierence in tissue sensitivity. It is the pre-ferred method for comparing eective tissue sensitivity.effective focal area e apparent size and shape of the focal spot when viewed from a position in the primary beam.electric current e ow of electricity through a circuit.electromagnetic radiation A grouping of energy waves that have the weightlessness of the waves and the speed of which they travel (the speed of light-86,000 miles per second) in common.electromagnetic spectrum e spectrum of energy-bearing waves whose properties are determined by their wavelength, frequency and penetrating ability.electron A negatively charged particle, which is a constituent of every neutral atom.electron cloud e electrons at the cathode sur-rounding the tungsten lament.electronic timers Timers that are used with the newer dental x-ray units. e use of elec-tronic timers, as opposed to mechanical timers, is imperative as short exposure times are employed with digital sensors and faster, more sensitive contemporary x-ray lms.electrostatic artifact Black linear streaks or black spots on the radiograph caused by static electricity.elongation e distortion on a radiograph that results in lengthening of the image particularly caused by insucient vertical angulationemulsion e silver halide suspension in gelatin that is coated on the x-ray lm base.enamel e radiopaque covering of the crown of the tooth.enamel hypoplasia A defect associated with a reduced thickness of enamel that is formed during the developing stages of the enamel.enamel pearls (enameloma) Small, rounded, hyperplastic area of enamel seen on the roots of the teeth.endostosis (dense bone island, idiopathic osteosclerosis) An internal growth of bone that is considered to be the internal version of exostoses that appears radiopaque on radio-graphic images and are asymptomatic and within normal limits.enlargement An increase in the size of the image.erosion A condition of the teeth that results from a chemical action not involving bacteria on the tooth surface. Areas of erosion appear as radio-lucent defects on the tooth and can be mistaken for caries radiographically.eruption e emergence of teeth into the oral cavity.exostosis (hyperostosis) An overgrowth of bone on the surface of the alveolar bone.exposure A measure of the ionization in air pro-duced by x-ray or gamma radiation.exposure routine e order in which exposures are taken.exposure technique e technique used by the operator to exposure radiographic images. e goal of the dental professional is to perfect their technique, reduce radiographic retakes and produce diagnostically acceptable radiographs with the least amount of radiation exposure to the patient and to themselves.exposure time e amount of time, expressed in fractions of seconds or impulses, that x-rays are generated.extension paralleling technique A technique for intraoral radiography that uses a 16-in target- receptor distance, receptor placement parallel to the long axis of the teeth, and a central ray direc-tion perpendicular to both the object and the receptor.external oblique ridge A radiopaque line seen in mandibular posterior periapical radiographs that appears higher and shorter than the internal oblique or mylohyoid ridge.external resorption e idiopathic condition seen radiographically where the tissue from the peri-odontal ligament causes resorption of the dentin.extraction socket e radiolucent area on a radiograph that has not lled with bone after a tooth is removed from that area.extraoral projections Radiographs that are taken with the receptor and source of radiation outside of the patient’s mouth. 290 GlossaryFfallout A form of background radiation produced by a nuclear explosion.federal regulations A set of regulations promul-gated by the U.S. government governing the manufacture and performance of dental x-ray machines.eld of view (FOV) e patient’s maxillofacial area that is of interest when taking a CBCT (CBVT) image.lament e tungsten wire found at the cathode in the x-ray tube that when heated boils o electrons.lling overhang Poorly contoured lling that allows accumulation of debris.lm A transparent sheet of cellulose acetate or a similar material that is coated on both sides with an emulsion sensitive to radiation and light.lm badge A recording device worn to record one’s exposure to ionizing radiation.lm base e cellulose acetate sheet on which the emulsion is coated.lm contrast e dierence in the degrees of density.lm fog An overall gray appearance due to dimin-ished contrast.lm hanger e device that carries the lm through the manual processing procedure.lm-holding device e device used to hold a lm in place for intraoral radiography.lm mount A cardboard or plastic holder for n-ished radiographs.lm packet e lm receptor used in conven-tional (lm-based) radiography consisting of the an outer vinyl package wrapper, a black paper lm wrapper, an x-ray lm, and a lead foil backing.lm reversal e improper placement of the lm packet in the patient’s mouth that results in an underexposed lm with a geometric pattern (i.e. herringbone pattern), caused by the useful beam striking the lead foil backing before the lm.lm roller at part of an automatic processor that moves the lm along from one step to another in the automatic processing sequence.lm-screen system e imaging system used in conventional extraoral radiography in which the lm is used in combination with intensify-ing screens.lm speed (sensitivity) An expression of how much radiation for a given period of time is nec-essary to produce an image on lm.lm viewing e positioning of the nished radio-graphs on an illuminating device for reading and interpretation.lter An aluminum disk placed in the path of the useful beam that absorbs the softer, less penetrat-ing radiations.ltration e removal of long (soft), nonpenetrat-ing x-ray photons from the x-ray beam.ssural cysts Cysts that are always found in pre-dictable anatomic locations because they develop along embryonic suture lines.xation e localization of an object in three planes.xer e solution used in the processing of exposed x-ray lm that removes the unaected silver bromide crystals from the emulsion and hardens (preserves) the image.exible cassette A cassette that can be wound around a drum for panoramic radiography.oor of maxillary sinus e radiopaque horizon-tal line seen above the apices of the maxillary pre-molars and molars on periapical lms.oor of the nasal cavity e horizontal radio-paque line seen in the maxillary incisor maxillary incisor, canine and posterior regions.orid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FLCOD) Is considered a type of COD (cemento-osseous dys-plasia) but can occur in both maxilla and mandi-ble and in multiple quadrants.uorescence e property of emitting visible light when struck by radiation.focal-lm distance (FFD) e distance from the focal spot (target) at the anode of the dental x-ray tube to the receptor . It is usually expressed in inches (e.g., an 8-in FFD). Currently known as the target-receptor distance.Focal-object distance e distance from the focal spot (target) at the anode of the dental x-ray tube to the object (i.e. tooth) being radiographed.focal cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) Is a condition similar to PCOD (periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia) but occurs in the posterior mandible, distal to the canines. It usually occurs as a single-site lesion.focal spot (area) See target.focal trough at plane of an object that is seen clearly on a tomogram also known as the plane of acceptable detail.fog A detrimental density imparted to a radio-graphic image by the lm base and chemical action on unexposed silver grains. An overall gray appearance due to diminished contrast. Fog is increased by inadvertent exposure to white light.follicle (dental sac) As crown formation pro-gresses, the radiolucent follicle (dental sac) is seen surrounding the crown of the tooth. is is a sac containing the developing tooth and its odontogenic organ.foramen A normal radiolucent opening in bone.foreshortening e distortion on a radiograph that results in shortening of the image primarily caused by excessive vertical angulation.fossa A radiolucent depression in bone.fracture e breaking of a part of an oral structure, usually resulting in a radiolucency.Frankfort plane e imaginary line connecting the oor of the orbit and the superior border of the external auditory meatus.free radical An uncharged molecule that exists with a single unpaired electron in its outer shell.frequency e number of oscillations that an energy wave makes per second.full-mouth series (full-mouth survey) A series of intraoral radiographs that gives diagnostic information for all teeth and desired bony areas. It is usually composed of periapical and bite-wing projections.furcation e area between the roots of a multi-rooted tooth.fusion e developmental disturbance in which two teeth are joined, resulting in a large crown and two root canals.Ggag reex e retching or coughing, caused by contact of the receptor, or holding device with the patient’s palate or other intraoral tissues.gamma rays Electromagnetic radiation of short wavelengths that emanate from radioactive materials.gelatin e material coating the cellulose acetate base of lm in which the halide crystals are suspended.gemination e developmental disturbance of teeth whereby a tooth has one root canal but two crowns.gene e basic unit of inheritance, located in the chromosome, which determines hereditary characteristics.general supervision Referring to the fact that the dentist need not be directly present during a licensed sta member’s performance of duties.genetic effects e changes produced in an indi-vidual’s genes and chromosomes; usually refers to those changes in reproductive cells.genial tubercle e radiopacity seen apical to the teeth on mandibular central incisor periapi-cal radiographs at the midline of the mandible.ghost image e objects that have the greatest density (e.g., bone or metal objects) and are out of the plane of acceptable detail (focal trough) are shown in two places on the panoramic image. One place is the intended image or the usable image, and the other is referred to as the ghost image. e ghost image is always reversed, has less sharpness and is seen at a point higher on the projection than the desired image.gray (Gy) e Système International (SI) unit for absorbed dose. One gray equals 100 rads.gray level e density seen on a digital image.grid A device used to prevent object scatter from aecting the receptor.group D lm An ANSI rating for intermediate-speed lm.group E lm An ANSI rating for fast lm.group F lm An ANSI rating for the fastest lm available.HH & D curve e H & D (Hunter and Drield) curve is a plot that shows the relationship between lm exposure and its resultant density.half-value layer e thickness of a specic mate-rial that attenuates the x-ray beam intensity to one half. It is an expression of beam quality.half-wave rectied e blocking of the reversal of current across the dental x-ray tube.halide Compound of metal with the halogen element bromine, chlorine, or iodine.hamular notch e radiolucent anatomic land-mark that is located distal to the maxillary tuberosity.hamular process (hamulus) e radiopaque bone that is located distal to the hamular notch.hard copy e printout of a digital image.headrest position Proper position of the patient’s head for radiographic exposure.Health Insurance Portability and Account-ability Act (HIPAA) Enacted in April 2000 to ensure patient condentiality in healthcare delivery.hearing-impaired Physical disability that aects a person’s ability to hear eciently.hemostat An instrument that can serve as an intraoral receptor holder.hepatitis Infectious disease categorized by inam-mation of the liver caused by the hepatitis virus. Dental personnel should be immunized (vacci-nated) for the hepatitis B virus (HBV).high contrast High contrast images appear mainly black and white with very few gray tones, and the densities (black and white) seen are easy to distin-guish from each other. ey also are referred to as short-scale contrast images and are produced by a lower kilovoltage range.horizontal angulation e aiming of the x-ray beam in the horizontal plane.horizontal bone loss Interproximal periodontal bone loss in the horizontal plane.Hounseld unit A unit used in computed tomo-graphic scanning to express the density of a spe-cic area of the image.human immunodeciency virus (HIV) e virus that compromises the immune system, leading to acquired immunodeciency syndrome (AIDS). 291Glossaryhypercementosis A condition that results in for-mation of excess cementum on the root of a tooth.hyperdontia (supernumerary teeth) Super-numerary, or extra, teeth. e most common supernumerary teeth are mandibular premolars, maxillary incisors, and fourth molars.hyperostotic lines Clearly dened radiopaque borders of slow-growing benign lesions.hypodontia Is the failure of teeth to develop. It can occur in either the primary or adult dentition.Iilluminator See viewbox.image A picture or representation of an object.image acquisition Acquisition of a computerized image in computed tomographic scanning and digital radiography.image density e degree of blackness on an image.image layer See focal trough.image manipulation e changing or modica-tion of a digital image.image receptor e component of an imaging system that the x-ray photons strike.imaginary bisecting line e line that bisects the angle formed by the long axis of the tooth and the receptor.imaging e visual representation of an object.imaging plate Reusable plastic storage phosphor sensor that is employed in indirect digital radiog-raphy and is not wired to the computer but uses a laser scanner to produce an image.imaging system e lm, digital sensor, or lm-screen combination that the x-rays strike to produce the visible image.immunization Protection of an individual from a communicable disease achieved by giving the patient a modied or weakened form of the caus-ative microorganism.impaction e condition of a tooth not being able to erupt by its expected time.implant xture e radiopaque metallic device that is placed in the maxilla or mandible to replace a missing tooth.impulse e radiation generated during a half cycle of an alternating current.incipient caries Caries that radiographically is only in the enamel.incisive canal e radiolucent anatomic land-mark in the maxillary anterior region that can be seen leading to the incisive foramen.incisive foramen See nasopalatine foramen.indirect digital radiography A kind of digital radiography in which the nished radiograph is scanned to produce a digital image.indirect effects Cell damage caused when the cells hit directly by radiation produce toxins that aect cells not in the radiation beam.infection Contamination caused by disease-pro-ducing microorganisms.infectious waste Waste that is contaminated with blood, saliva, or other body uids.inferior alveolar canal (mandibular canal) e radiolucent band seen on mandibular molar and premolar radiographs. It originates at the man-dibular foramen and runs downward and forward to end at the mental foramen.inferior border of the mandible A broad radi-opaque band that represents the thick cortical bone of the inferior portion of the mandible. e inferior border of the mandible can be seen in all of the intraoral mandibular projections.inferior nasal concha (turbinate) e radiopac-ity that sometimes projects into the nasal fossa from its lateral wall and can be seen on maxil-lary anterior radiographs.informed consent e permission granted or implied by the patient to allow treatment to be rendered after a full explanation of the treatment has been made.infrabony pocket e area created and seen on radiographs as the result of crestal bone loss.intensifying screen A coating of uorescent material on a suitable base that intensies the radiation, thus permitting a decrease in expo-sure time.intensity e product of the quantity and the quality of the x-ray beam per unit of area per time of exposure.interaction e result of radiation reacting with any form of matter.internal oblique ridge (mylohyoid ridge) e radiopaque line that is seen running anteriorly on radiographs from the ascending ramus to the genial tubercles of the mandible that appears longer and lower than the external oblique ridge.internal resorption e process in which pulpal cells resorb the walls of the pulp chamber or canal to form a communication to the periodon-tal ligament.interpretation An explanation of radiographic ndings.interproximal caries Caries on the mesial or distal surfaces of teeth that are best viewed on bitewing radiographs.intraofce peer review e evaluation mecha-nism for maintaining superior levels of chair-side technique between personnel within a dental oce.inverse square law An expression of the relation-ship between the exposure time and focal-lm distance (target-receptor distance). is law states that the intensity of radiation is inversely pro-portional to the square of the distance between a point source and the irradiated surface.ion An electrically charged (+ or –) particle of matter.ionization e process by which an electrically stable or neutral atom or molecule gains or loses electrons and thereby acquires a positive or neg-ative charge.ionizing radiation e property of radiation that produces ions when interacting with matter.isotope An atom whose nucleus has the same number of protons but a dierent number of neutrons.Kkilovoltage (kilovolt) (kV) An electric potential dierence as measured in kilovolts (a unit of mea-surement equal to 1000 V). Controls the quality of the x-ray beam in the dental x-ray tube.kilovolt peak (kVp) A unit of measurement used in dental radiology to express the kilo-voltage setting on the control panel. It implies that not all the x-rays generated are of the pen-etrating power called for; rather, the numerical setting is the peak and is usually employed with x-ray machines that operate on an alternating current.Llabial mounting A means of mounting and viewing processed radiographs so that the observ-er’s point of view is looking into the patient’s mouth with the patient’s right side on the view-er’s left.lamina dura A radiopaque line of cortical bone that surrounds the periodontal ligament sur-rounding the tooth’s root.laminogram (tomogram) A radiograph of a three-dimensional object that shows a predetermined plane clearly while blurring out all other super-imposed structures.latent image e term used to describe the x-ray lm after it has been exposed. e lm contains the latent image that will be made visible by lm processing.latent period e delay between exposure of an organism to radiation and manifestation of change produced by that radiation.lateral fossa A depression in the labial plate in the maxillary lateral incisor region. It appears as a radiolucency between the maxillary lateral incisor and canine.lateral oblique projection of the mandi-ble Projection used for surveying one side of the mandible.lateral skull projection (cephalometric pro-jection) An extraoral radiograph that shows the entire skull in the sagittal plane.lead apron e exible lead or lead-equivalent drape placed over the patient’s torso to shield from secondary radiation.lead foil backing One of the components of the intraoral lm packet that prevents backscatter.lead-lined boxes Shielded boxes used in the past, for unprotected lm that over time may con-taminate the lm with an oxidized leaded white powder.liability e responsibility for a deed or decision.licensure e permission granted by a govern-mental body that allows one to work in his or her profession.light leak e area where unwanted white light is entering a darkroom.light-tight A term used in radiography to indicate that there is no white light exposure.line pairs per millimeter A measure of contrast discrimination (gray levels) in an image.lingual caries Demineralization of the hard tooth structure on the lingual surface of a tooth.lingual foramen A radiolucent opening in the lingual surface of the mandibular anterior bony structure and appears at the center of the genial tubercles on a radiograph.lingual mounting A means of mounting and viewing processed radiographs so that the observ-er’s point of view is looking at the teeth from within the patient’s mouth with the patient’s right side on the viewer’s right and the patient’s left side on the viewer’s left.litigious Tending to bring legal action.localization Locating radiographic structures, par-ticularly in the buccolingual plane.localized exposure e measurement of radia-tion to the area of the body that is in the path of the direct beam of radiation.localizing ring e extraoral part of an intraoral paralleling receptor-holding device that aligns the x-ray beam with the lm or sensor (receptor).long axis e imaginary line that divides the tooth vertically in two halves.long cone Used to refer to position-indicating devices on x-ray machines where the target- receptor (focal-lm) distance is 16 in or greater.long-scale contrast Film contrast in which the gray tone is predominant.long-term effects Eects of radiation that appear years or decades after exposure to radiation.low contrast See long-scale contrast.Mmagnetic eld e eld used in MRI that changes the alignment and orientation of the protons in the patient’s body.magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) An imaging modality that uses magnetic elds and 292 Glossaryradio frequencies to view pathologic lesions in the soft tissues of the body.magnication e proportional enlargement of a radiographic image.malignant growth (malignancy or malignant lesion) A type of tumor that can be locally destructive or metastasize and can result in a fatality.malposed A tooth that is out of line with the dental arch.mandibular canal (inferior alveolar canal) See inferior alveolar canal.mandibular foramen Appears radiolucent on radiographs and is where the mandibular (infe-rior alveolar) canal originates. e mandibular foramen cannot be seen on intraoral radiographs.mandibular tori (torus mandibularis) A specif-ically placed exostosis that is bilateral, appears radiopaque, and is located in the mandibular pre-molar region on dental radiographs.manual processing e process of developing radiographs where the lm hangers are manually placed in the processing solutions.marking grid e device used to superimpose either radiopaque or radiolucent lines in 1-mm vertical and horizontal increments.mass number e number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) in the nucleus of an atom.maxillary sinus e radiolucent area seen apical to the maxillary posterior teeth.maxillary torus (torus palatinus) A specically placed exostosis at the midline of the palate that appears radiopaque on dental radiographs.maxillary tuberosity e distal portion of the maxillary alveolar ridge.maxillofacial radiology at specialty of den-tistry concerned with exposure and inter-pretation of diagnostic imaging used for examining the craniofacial, dental, and adjacent structures.maximum permissible dose (MPD) e amount of whole-body radiation to which an occupationally exposed person (or the general public) can be exposed to without any harm during a specic period of time (i.e. yearly).median palatal suture e radiolucent line seen running vertically between the roots of the max-illary central incisors.medullary spaces Radiolucent areas seen in bone representing the bone marrow.mental foramen e round radiolucent area seen near the apices of the mandibular premolars.mental ridge e V-shaped radiopacity seen in mandibular anterior radiographs.mesiodens A supernumerary tooth found in the midline of the maxillary arch.metabolic lesion A radiographic nding caused by a generalized pathologic condition.microorganism An organism, such as bacteria, of microscopic or ultramicroscopic size.midsagittal plane e imaginary line that divides the skull in equal parts in the sagittal plane.milliamperage (mA) Current strength expressed in milliamperes (one thousandth of an ampere). e mA setting controls the quantity of the x-ray beam in the dental x-ray tube.milliroentgen (mR) One thousandth of a roentgen.mixed dentition Both primary and secondary teeth are present in the oral cavity.mixed lesion A radiographic lesion that has both radiolucent and radiopaque components.molecule e smallest particle of a substance that retains the properties of the substance.monitor Computer image screen used in digital radiography.monitoring device e instrument that measures radiation exposure.mounts e cardboard or plastic sheets used to hold and view a nished radiograph.Multiplanar reconstructed images (MPR images) When these axial, coronal, and sag-ittal CBCT images are viewed simultaneously.mutation e chemical eect of a change in a gene or a chromosomal aberration.mylohyoid ridge See internal oblique ridge.Nnasal cavity e bilateral radiolucent areas seen superior to the maxillary central incisors.nasal septum e radiopaque vertical line sepa-rating the right and left nasal cavities.nasolabial fold A radiolucent area seen distal to the canine.nasopalatine (incisive) foramen e oval radio-lucent landmark located between the roots of the maxillary central incisors.negligent Failure to exercise the care that a prudent person would usually exercise in the same situation.neutron A particle that has no charge but has mass. It is found in the nucleus of an atom.nucleus e positively charged, relatively heavy inner core of an atom.normalizing device e device utilized in the procedure for testing the strength of the proc-essing solutions. is procedure involves placing the processed lm in a slot and moving the mea-sured densities until a visual match of densities is achieved. If the test densities are too light, the solutions are too weak or too cold. If the densi-ties are too dark, the solutions are too concen-trated or too warm.nutrient canals Pathways for blood vessels and nerves that appear as radiolucent vertical lines in alveolar bone.Oobject e structure being radiographed, such as tooth or bone.object density e density (thickness) of the teeth, bone, and soft tissue being radiographed, which is determined by the structure of the object being radiographed, and the image density, which is the degree of blackness on an image.object-lm distance e distance between the object and the x-ray lm. Currently known as the object-receptor distance.object-receptor distance See object-lm dis-tance.occlusal caries Caries that are found on the biting surfaces of teeth and are usually not seen well on radiographs.occlusal receptor A large intraoral receptor (#4) placed on the occlusal surfaces of either the upper or lower teeth and used to portray objects in the buccolingual dimension.occlusal plane e imaginary plane formed by the occlusal contact of upper and lower teeth.occlusal projection A radiographic projection of the mandible or maxilla that shows either a larger area or a right-angle (axial) relationship of the objects being radiographed.Occupational Safety and Health Administra-tion (OSHA) e federal agency that oversees health and safety in the workplace.oligodontia e absence of many teeth (many missing teeth).open contact When the interproximal surfaces of teeth or restorations do not touch.operator concern Radiation concerns that lie with the operator.Optically scanned digital radiography e process in indirect digital imaging whereby a nished conventional radiograph is scanned and then digitized and the information is sent to the computer.orbit A prescribed path or ring in which electrons travel around the nucleus of an atom.orientation dot is is a small, convex-concave area that indicates which side of the lm was facing the tooth and the source of radiation and helps to orient the developed lm in mounting.osteoradionecrosis An area of bone does not heal from the high levels of radiation used in radiation therapy.output e amount of radiation produced by the x-ray machine (measured in roentgens per second).overdeveloped e condition of a radiograph being too dark because of the lm’s having been left in the developer solution too long.overexposure A dark or dense image due to improper settings (kV, mA, exposure time) causing excessive exposure due to overpenetra-tion of the x-ray beam.overlapping e interproximal surfaces of adjoin-ing teeth are superimposed on each other because of improper horizontal angulation or improper placement of the receptor in the horizontal plane.overretention e state of the deciduous teeth not being shed at the expected time.Ppacket A wrapping or container for intraoral x-ray lm that is light-tight and permits penetration of x-rays. Packets are usually made of plastic, paper or cardboard.panoramic image An extraoral radiograph that shows both the mandible and the maxilla and other structures out of the realm of intraoral radiographs in their entirety on a single image.Panorex e commercial name for one of the ear-liest panoramic units.pantomogram A panoramic radiograph produced by curved surface tomography.paperless ofce A dental oce where all records, including radiographs and photographs, are pro-duced and stored in digital form on a computer.parallel Moving or lying in the same plane, equi-distant, and never intersecting.paralleling technique A technique for intraoral periapical radiography in which the receptor is positioned parallel to the long axis of the tooth and the central ray is directed perpendicular to both the tooth and the receptor.pathogen A disease-causing microorganism.patient concern Radiation concerns that lie with the patient.patient movement When a patient moves during an exposure causing a blurred radiographic image.penetration e ability of x-rays to pass through an object and reach the receptor.penumbra e vague or blurred area that sur-rounds the edge of the radiographic image.periapical abscess A type of periapical patho-logic process whereby an abscess forms at the apex of a tooth.periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia (PCOD) (periapical cemental dysplasia - PCD) A three-stage asymptomatic lesion seen on mandibular anterior periapical radiographs.periapical condensing osteitis e apical bony response to low-level infection that appears radi-opaque on dental radiographs.periapical cyst A cyst formed at the apex of a tooth. 293Glossaryperiapical projection Intraoral image represent-ing the entire tooth from the incisal or occlusal surface to the apex of the root and 2-3 mm of surrounding bone.periapical granuloma A granuloma formed at the apex of a tooth.periapical lesions Radiolucent or radiopaque lesions appearing at the apex of the tooth.periapical pathologic condition e infectious condition that arises at the apex of a tooth as the sequela of pulpal necrosis.periapical radiograph An intraoral image that shows the entire tooth and surrounding bony structures.period of injury is period occurs after radiation exposure and the latent period, and can include changes in the cell’s or tissue’s function.periodontal abscess A soft tissue abscess of the gingiva that is seen as a radiolucency interproxi-mally on radiographs.periodontal disease Disease of the supportive structures of the teeth.periodontal ligament Radiolucent area around the root of the tooth between the cementum and the lamina dura.permissible dose e amount of radiation that one can receive without suering any clinical eects.personal protective equipment (PPE) Personal barriers to the transmission of infective micro-organisms including gloves, masks, protective eyewear, and protective clothing that must be worn in the dental environment.perpendicular Intersecting or meeting at a 90- degree angle.phosphor A substance that when struck by radia-tion will emit light.photoelectric effect An interaction of an x-ray photon with an atom in which an inner shell electron is released and the total energy of the photon is absorbed.photon A discrete unit of energy.photostimulable phosphor plate An electronic sensor used in indirect digital radiography that is read by a laser beam scanner.physical disability A condition that limits the patient’s ability to perform certain movements.pixel A discrete point of information utilized in digital radiography to produce the digital image.pocket dosimeters Small ionization chambers that the operator wears to measure radiation occupational exposure.point of entry Anatomic location on the patient’s face at which the central x-ray is aimed so that the x-rays strike the center of the receptor in the patient’s mouth.point of rotation A point in a tomographic unit around which the sensor and source of energy rotate.position-indicating device (PID) at part of the x-ray machine (cone, rectangle, or cylinder) that aligns the useful beam to the object and receptor.posteroanterior projection e companion pro-jection to the lateral skull used to survey the skull in the anteroposterior plane, which pro-vides a means of localizing changes in a medio-lateral direction.pregnancy e condition in which a woman is carrying a fetus in her womb.primary dentition e rst (deciduous) set of teeth.primary radiation X-rays coming directly from the target of the x-ray tube.primordial cyst A cyst seen in the jaws that forms instead of a tooth.progeny e descendants of an individual.proton A positively charged particle that has mass. It is found in the nucleus of an atom.pterygomaxillary ssure It is a radiopaque out-lined triangular interval, formed by the diver-gence of the maxilla from the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone. It appears as an inverted teardrop on extraoral radiographs.pulp calcications e condition in which the pulp canals and chambers are completely lled with dentin.pulp canal and chamber e space within the crown and root of the teeth where the soft tissue of the pulp is found.pulp denticle (pulp stone) A calcication formed in either the pulp chamber or the pulp canal.pulp horns An extension of the pulp extending toward the cusp of a tooth.Qquality assurance (QA) program A series of tests and procedures to ensure that all compo-nents of the radiographic system are functioning at an acceptable level of quality so as to ensure the best radiograph for the radiation exposure.quality factor An expression of the dierent types of eects that radiation produces in human tissue (for x-rays, Q = 1).Rradiation e emission and propagation of energy in the form of waves or particles.radiation absorbed dose (rad) A unit of absorbed radiation equal to 100 ergs per gram. In dental radiology, 1 rad is equal to approxi-mately 1 roentgen.radiation caries e type of caries caused by a decrease and changes in saliva secondary to radi-ation therapy of the head and neck.radiation exposure e process of being struck by radiation, either primary or secondary.radiation history e record of a patient’s expo-sure to radiation for diagnostic and therapeu-tic needs.radiation inspection e monitoring of x-ray equipment and procedures by some governmen-tal body or CRESO (certied radiation equip-ment safety ocer).radiation risk e likelihood of ill eects from radiation.radioactive process e process whereby certain unstable elements undergo spontaneous degen-eration and produce high-energy waves called gamma and particulate radiations.radiobiology Is the study of the eects of ionizing radiation on biologic tissue.radiofrequency e frequency in the electro-magnetic spectrum at which radio waves are found.radiograph e visual image produced by chemi-cally processing the eects of x-rays on lm or the dental image that appears on a computer monitor as a result of digital radiography.radiolucent (RL) Refers to areas on the radiograph that appear dark. ese objects have little or no density.radiolucent lesion A pathologic lesion that is dark on radiographs.radionuclide A radioactive substance.radiopaque (RO) Refers to areas on the radio-graph that appear light. ese are objects that are dense.radiopaque lesion A pathologic lesion that is light on radiographs.radiopaque medium A liquid that is injected into body vessels or spaces whose outline is radiopaque on the radiograph for diagnostic pruposes.radioresistant cell A cell that is relatively unaf-fected by radiation.radiosensitive cell A cell that is sensitive to radiation.rapid processing e processing of radiographs by either elevated solution temperature or con-centration, which markedly shortens the time needed to produce an image. is technique is used when the time it takes to process the lm is shortened and is more important than the exact-ing of the image.rare earth elements A group of metallic ele-ments that contain oxides classied as rare earths. Such elements are used in intensifying screens to produce light.receptor e material (lm, lm screen, or digital sensor) that is aected by the x-ray beam and from which the visible image is formed.receptor holder e device that holds and posi-tions the receptor (e.g., lm) in the patient’s mouth.receptor (lm or sensor) plane e plane (axial, sagittal, or coronal) in which the receptor (lm or sensor) is held for radiographic exposure.receptor (lm or sensor) position e descrip-tion of the relationship between the receptor (lm or sensor) and the teeth to be radiographed.recessed target e design of a dental x-ray machine in which the tube is positioned at the back of the tube head that allows for a 12-in to 16-in target-receptor (focal-lm) distance and a short position-indicating device (PID).recessed tube An x-ray tube that is placed in the rear part of the tube head, with the rest of the components placed on both sides of the beam. is design extends the focal distance without increasing the length of the position-indicating device.record keeping Keeping accurate records of lms processed, mounted, and led as an important part of a QA program in a dental facility.records e written or electronic description and images of treatment given to a patient.rectangular collimation Limiting the shape of an x-ray beam to a rectangle instead of the con-ventional circle.rectication Blocking of the ow of current in one direction in an alternating current circuit.reference lm An ideally processed lm, which is kept on the darkroom viewbox, to which densi-ties and contrasts can be compared to check the strength of the processing solutions.reformatting In computed tomography, chang-ing the plane of orientation in which the image is portrayed.replenisher A concentrated form of either the developer or xer solutions that is used to maintain the volume and concentration of the solutions.res gestae “Admissions against interest” – ese are statements made by anyone spontaneously at the time of an alleged negligent act that are then considered admissible as evidence.residual cyst A cyst that was not removed with the extraction of the tooth and continues to grow.residual granuloma A granuloma that was not removed with the extraction of the tooth and continues to grow.resolution e discernible separation of closely adjacent image details.resonance e transition from one energy level to another.respondeat superior e legal doctrine that states that liability, both professionally and 294 Glossarylegally, rests with the dentist and not the hygien-ist or dental assistant.retake e repeating of a non-diagnostic exposure.reticulation An unsatisfactory image caused by a sudden change in temperature from one proc-essing solution to another.reverse bitewing A variation of a bitewing whereby the receptor is placed in the buccal sulcus and the central ray directed at the recep-tor from the other side of the jaw as in a lateral oblique projection.ridge A radiopaque line representing extra bone seen on radiographs.right-angle occlusal projection is technique (also known as the 90-degree or cross-sectional projection) employs directing the central ray at an angle of 90 degrees to the receptor. is tech-nique is used for locating an oral nding in the buccolingual or the third dimension.right-angle technique (projection) Another name for the paralleling technique. See paral-leling technique.risk estimate e comparing of the presence of a nding between irradiated and nonirradiated populations.risk factors Are expressed as the number of cases or deaths from a specic disease per million persons.risk management Oce procedures and policies that reduce the likelihood of litigation.roentgen (R) e basic unit for measuring x-ray (ionizing radiation) exposure in air. It is the amount of radiation needed to produce one elec-trostatic charge in 1 cm3 of air. e milliroent-gen (mR) is one thousandth of a roentgen.roentgen equivalent man (rem) e expression of dose equivalent; the dose of radiation that pro-duces the same biologic eects in humans as are produced by 1 roentgen of x-radiation. For x-rays the rem equals the rad.root resorption e destruction of the root struc-ture caused by chronic periapical or periodontal infection, trauma, pressure from tumors or cysts, or rapid excessive orthodontic pressure, or it can be idiopathic.root sack e radiolucent ball seen at the apices of developing teeth.RVG system One of the earliest dental digital units to be put on the market.Ssafelight Illumination used in the darkroom that does not aect the lm emulsion.sagittal plane (of the head) A vertical longitu-dinal plane that divides the head into right and left sections.salivary stones (sialoliths or salivary calculi) Calcictions in the salivary gland or duct that causes an obstruction and possible con-sequential swelling and infection.scale of contrast Refers to the range of densities seen in a dental radiographic image.scanner A device that senses the grayscales of a radiograph and records it in the digital form for a printout or computer storage.scatter radiation Radiation that during its passage through a substance has been deviated in other directions. It also may have been modi-ed by an increase in wavelength. It is one form of secondary radiation.secondary dentin Dentin produced by the pulp in response to an irritation or aging.secondary radiation Radiation that comes from any matter being struck by primary radiation (i.e. scatter radiation). Secondary x-rays are less pene-trating than primary x-rays.selection criteria ose factors that dictate whether radiographs are necessary and useful in a specic clinical situation.self- or half-wave-rectied e blocking of the reversal of a current (rectication) that the dental x-ray tube operating on an alternating current is designed to produce.sensor An electronic detector plate that is placed in the patient’s mouth to record the penetrating x-ray photons in digital radiography.septa Radiopaque lines seen dividing bony spaces.sharpness e visual quality or clarity of a radio-graph (conventional or digital), which depends on the resolution, detail, or denition of a radio-graphic image.shell See orbit.shielding Preventing or reducing the passage of radiation.short cone A position-indicating device on dental x-ray machines for which the target-receptor (focal-lm) distance is 8 in.short-scale contrast A reduced range of grays on a radiograph (i.e., high contrast).sialography A modality for radiographic visual-ization of salivary glands following the injection of a contrast medium into the salivary ducts for diagnostic purposes.sialolith A salivary calcication (stone).sievert (Sv) e Système International (SI) unit for the dose equivalent. One sievert equals 100 rem.sight development A lm-processing technique in which the time the lm stays in the devel-oper is subjectively determined by periodically looking at the developing image under safelight conditions.signal intensity e strength of the radiofre-quency wave that comes from the patient back to the detector in magnetic resonance imaging.silver bromides (a type of silver halide) e x-ray-sensitive crystals used in the lm emulsion.sinus A radiolucent cavity in bone.slit beam tomogram A tomographic image pro-duced by an extremely narrow, rectangular x-ray beam.SLOB rule e acronym used to interpret the results of using the tube shift method (Clark’s rule, or the buccal-object rule) to determine the relative buccolingual relationship between two structures that appear radiographically superim-posed. SLOB stands for same lingual, opposite buccal which means that if after the tube shift the object moves in the opposite direction of the tube shift it is said to be buccally positioned and if it stays the same, it is said to be more lin-gually positioned.soft tissue window A density range seen in com-puted tomographic scans that portrays mainly soft tissue.soft x-rays X-rays of longer wavelengths and low penetration.software A computer program and other operat-ing information used by a computer.somatic effects Eects of radiation on all cells except the reproductive cells.standard of care e quality of care that is pro-vided by dental practitioners in a similar location under the same or similar conditions.statute of limitations e period of time in which a patient can bring suit against a dentist or dental health professional.step-down transformer A transformer designed to decrease the voltage.step-up transformer A transformer designed to increase the voltage.step wedge e device used to measure the pen-etration of a dental x-ray beam.sterilization e process used to destroy all patho-gens, including highly resistant bacteria and spores.stochastic effects e eects of radiation expo-sure that occur by chance and by changes in the DNA of body cells. In the context of radiation protection, the main stochastic eect is radiation-induced cancer.stop bath e solution (water in x-ray processing) in which lms are placed after the developer.storage phosphor A type of indirect digital radiography that uses photostimulable phosphor plate technology.submandibular fossa e broad radiolucent band seen apical to the mandibular molars that represents a medial bone depression.submentovertex projection An extraoral pro-jection whereby jaws are seen from an inferior view. is projection is used to detect fractures of the zygomatic arch and visualize the sphe-noid and ethmoid sinuses as well as the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus. It is also used in tomography as a scout lm to determine the posi-tions of the condyles in imaging evaluation of the TMJ.Système International (SI) units e units of radiation measurement that standardize measure-ment to the metric system.Ttarget at part of the anode that the high-speed electrons strike and that produces x-rays and heat. In dental x-ray tubes, the target is usually made of tungsten.target-object distance See focal-object distance.target-receptor distance See focal-lm distance.taurodontia (taurodontism) A developmental defect of teeth in which the crowns have longitu-dinally enlarged pulp chambers with short roots.temporomandibular joint (TMJ) e joint formed by the articulation of the mandibular condyle and the temporal bone of the maxilla.tesla (T) e unit of measurement for the strength of the magnetic eld in an MRI unit.thermionic emission effect Production of free electrons by the passing of an electric current through a tungsten lament with resultant heating of the lament.thermometer e device found in the developer solution used to measure the temperature of the solution.thermostatic valve A device used to control the temperature of the incoming water in the manual developing tanks.thin image A light image, lacking in density.threshold erythema dose (TED) e minimal dose of radiation to the skin that will produce a reddening of the skin on the most sensitive patient’s skin.thyroid collar e lead drape put around the patient’s neck to shield the thyroid gland during intraoral radiographic procedures.timer e parameter on the x-ray unit control panel that regulates the exposure time.time-temperature development A technique used to process x-ray lms in which the time the lm stays in the developer is calibrated to the temperature of the solution within a stated acceptable range.tissue sensitivity at scale of sensitivity of various tissues in the body to radiation. Some tissues (e.g., epithelium) are very radiosensi-tive, whereas others (e.g., bone) are relatively radioresistant. 295Glossarytomogram A radiograph of a three-dimensional object that shows a predetermined plane with blurring of all other superimposed structures.tomography A radiographic modality that allows imaging in one plane of an object while blurring or eliminating images from structures in other planes.tooth eruption e growth and migration of teeth into the oral cavity.Topographic occlusal projection A type of occlusal radiographic technique that shows a large area, utilizing extreme vertical angulations which are necessary to compensate for the lack of parallelism between the object and the receptor. is projection is a modication of the bisecting-angle technique.torn emulsion Film-processing error that occurs when the emulsion is removed from the acetate base in a nished radiograph.total body exposure e radiation dosage that reects the eects on the whole body of the person exposed.trabecula Radiopaque line separating marrow spaces in bone.trabecular pattern e expression of the radio-graphic appearance of alveolar bone.transcranial projection An extraoral projection used to visualize the temporomandibular joint.transformer An electric device that can either increase (step up) or decrease (step down) voltage.transposed Tooth development in another posi-tion in the dental arch.triangulation A description of the shape of interproximal bone loss when the periodontal ligament separates from the tooth and has a tri-angular shape with the base of the triangle toward the crown and the point of the triangle toward the root of the tooth.trismus e state of being unable to open one’s mouth.trough e depth of an energy (i.e. x-ray) wave.tube head drift Drift of the x-ray tube head from its set position.tube head leakage Leakage of x-rays from an area in the tube head other than the port.tube shift A technique used to localize objects in the buccolingual plane by shifting the tube for a comparative radiograph.tuberosity A normal anatomic bony protrusion.tuberosity pad e brous buildup of soft tissue above the maxillary tuberosity causing a slightly radiopaque shadow on the radiograph in the maxillary posterior region.tungsten lament Component of the cathode in the dental x-ray tube that heats up and produces the thermionic emission eect resulting in the formation of the electron cloud.Uultrasound Mechanical radiant energy above the audible range that can be used in diagnostic imaging.umbra e sharp area that surrounds the edge of the radiographic image.underdevelopment A thin (light) lm that is the result of weak solutions or incorrect devel-oping time.underexposure e condition of an image that is light or thin as a result of insucient exposure time, inadequate kV or mA, or excessive FFD.unilateral lesion A lesion seen only on one side of a patient.universal precautions An infection control pro-tocol that is followed for all patients regardless of history and clinical ndings.useful beam e part of the primary radiation that passes through the diaphragm aperture and lter and exits through the position-indicating device.Vvaccination e introduction of vaccine (i.e., a weakened, dead, or genetically altered form of a microorganism) for the purpose of inducing immunity.vertical angulation e angle made between the x-ray beam and a line parallel to the oor.vertical bitewing Bitewing projection in which the receptor is placed in the patient’s mouth with its long dimension running vertically.vertical bone loss Interproximal bone loss in periodontal disease in the vertical plane.viewbox An illuminated device used to view radiographs.visible image e image present on a radiograph after the lm has been processed.visually impaired A person who has lost all or part of the ability to see.vitality testing e technique that uses either thermal or electrical stimulation to determine whether a tooth is vital or nonvital.voltage e dierence in potential in an electric circuit. It is this dierence that causes the current to ow.Wwater bath e second and fourth solutions (water) in the manual processing of dental radiographs.Waters’ view e type of posteroanterior extra-oral projection that enlarges the middle third of the skull to prevent superimposition, usually used for viewing the maxillary sinus.wavelength e distance from the crest of one wave to the crest of the next wave. In radiology, wavelength is a measure of energy.wet reading Interpretation of a radiograph approximately 3 minutes after its initial xation.wheelchair access e design of an oce that permits unrestricted access and placement of all patients.Xx-rays Penetrating electromagnetic radiations having wavelengths shorter than those of visible light and that are produced by bombarding a metal target with high-speed electrons.Zzygoma (malar bone) e radiopaque bone seen apical to the maxillary molars.zygomatic arch e cranial bone that runs from the maxilla distally to the temporal bone.zygomatic process of the maxilla A radi-opaque “U”-shaped bone seen on maxillary pos-terior radiographic projections. 296IndexAnatomic constraints, 29Anatomic horizontal positioning planes, 144fAnatomic landmarks, 147fAnemia, trabecular bone pattern, 270fAneurysm clamp, 154fAngling board, usage, 167Anode, 8Anodontia, 261, 261fAnterior nasal spine, 218b–223b, 218fAnterior palatine foramen, 228fAnterior periapical radiographs, 83f, 221fAnterior projections, size #0 pediatric lm, 83fAnterior teethblurring/narrowing, 150fcorrect position, 145ffractures, commonness, 269–270grooveforward position, 144fposterior position, 144fPFM crowns, 226fplacement groove, 144fpulp chambers, 250fAnteroposterior projection, 162Antibiotic prophylaxis, 77Antiseptics, 71, 73Antral/inverted Y, 218b–223bApical tissues, periapical lesions, 251–252Arthrography, 169, 211, 211finvasiveness, 169Articular disc, viewing, 169Artifacts, 154As low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), principle (concept), 51, 68adherence, 55Atom, 6, 7fcomponents, 6–7Atomic conguration, impact, 45Atomic mass number, 6–7Atomic number, 6–7Atomic structure, 6–7Attrition, 240–241, 241fAutoclaving, 71, 73Automatic processing, 76, 128b, 131–133sleeves, contamination, 76fsteps, 127fAutomatic processor, 132fautomatic replenishment, 132care/maintenance, 132–133chemical strength and solution level of, 194AAbrasion, 240–241, 241fAccessory radiographic techniques, 107–121Acknowledgment of Receipt Notice of Privacy Practices, 277b–278bAcquired immunodeciency syndrome (AIDS), emergence/identication, 70Acrylics, 225, 241Active pixel sensor (APS), 41Actual focal area, 28, 29fAcute buccal swelling, 246fAcute eects, 49Administrative radiographs, 63Administrative requirements, 277b–278bAdvanced caries, 238Advanced imaging systems, 185–192Advanced periodontal bone loss, 246fAir bubbles, 136, 136fAla-tragus line, 143Alternating current (AC), 15cycles per second, 15Aluminum lter, 21Aluminum step wedgedensities, 27frelative penetrations of, 26fuse of, 26, 26fAlveolar bone, 217Alveolar crest, 217density (fading), 245fAlveolar ridge, images, 222f–223fAmalgam restoration, 225fAmeloblastoma, 269fAmelogenesis imperfecta, 263, 264fAmerican Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology (AAOMR)lm speed recommendation, 37–38Parameters of Care Committee, paralleling statement, 85preventive procedure outline of, 194x-ray usage position paper, 188American Dental Association (ADA)lm speed recommendation, 37–38glove usage requirements, 70–71usage recommendation, 50American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 37Amperage, 16Ampere, 16Analogue signal, continuous, 173–174Analogue-to-digital converter, 172Anatomic congurations, 244Page numbers followed by “f” indicate gures, “t” indicate tables, and “b” indicate boxes.daylight loader, usage, 132fexample, 131flm insertion, 132fsolution, 132Automatic replenishment, 132Autotransformer, 16Axial cut, 189fAxial plane, 186CT scan, 187fBBackground radiation, 49–51ionizing radiation form, 50–51Backscatterabsorption, 36–37prevention, 35–36Barrier, 72–77denition, 71envelope, 74favailability, 74lm packet technique, usage (avoidance), 74–75Barrier requirements, 67–68Basilar projection, 167Bedridden patients, 201Benign lesionsmalignant lesions versus, 268Benign tumor, impact, 268fBent lms, 100–101Beta particles, 4Bifurcation bone loss, 246fBilateral lesion, 234fBinding energy, 7Biologic tissue, ionizing radiation (eects), 46Bisecting-angle technique (BAT), 31–32, 32f, 107advantages of, 108disadvantages of, 108impact, 59shallow palate compensation, 208Bisecting method, 59Bisecting technique, 107–108, 114badvantages of, 108disadvantages of, 108method of, 108, 109b–114bparalleling technique, comparison, 85–87usage, 86, 243Automatic processor (Continued) 297IndexBite blocks, 89position, 143usage, 205Bitewing lm, 132child intolerance, 202–203mounting, 216patient position, 89fusage, opposing teeth, 81Bitewing mounts, 214fBitewing projectionsdigital radiography, 179, 180fexamples, 95fsize #0 pediatric lm, 83ftechnique, 94Bitewing radiographhorizontal overlapping, 239fincipient caries, 238finterproximal caries, 238fBitewing survey mounts, 214–215Bitewings, 114, 114bcollimator cuto, 103fradiograph, 83fradiograph (Walkho), 2–3Black line, lm emulsion cracking (impact), 101fBlood-borne pathogen, 71Blurred image, 102patient movement, impact, 102fBoneconcavity, 216–217destruction, periapical radiograph, 268fdevelopmental conditions, recognition, 257marrow, 51–52metabolic lesions, 268–269objects, density, 146response, overcontoured crown, 244fscanning, 191septum, 219fwindow, 187example, 188fBone loss, 243fappearance, 245bifurcation involvement, 245fexample, 245f–246fBony impaction, 260, 260fBony response, 244fBraking radiation, 11–12Bremsstrahlung, 11–12energy expression, 11reactions, 11–12Buccal bone, 245fBuccal caries, 238f, 239–240, 240fBuccal-object rule, 206–207, 206f–207fBuccal surfaces, early lesions, 239–240Buccinator shadow, 218b–223bCCalcications, pulp, appearance, 250Calcied styloid ligament, 228fCalcium tungstate, 40Calculus, 243Calibration procedure, 194Cancellous bone, 217Caninesabsence, 261feruption, odontoma blockage, 259foverlap, lm placement problem, 209projection, 224fradiopaque anterior synthetic restoration, 226f“Captain of the ship” principle, 276Caries, 237–241advancement, 238appearance, periapical radiograph, 238fbuccal, 239–240conditions resembling, 240–241detection, 237–238lateral oblique technique, usage, 203fincipient, 238interpretation, contact point (eect), 239finterproximal, 238–239occlusal, 239, 240fpenetration, 237–238periapical radiograph, 239fsusceptibility, 61–63Carotid artery stents, 154fCassettes, 159marking letters, 159fusage, 159, 159fCathode, 8Cathode ray, 2, 2f, 11CC Proline, 143fCell phones, 124darkroom impact, 124Cell recovery, 49Cemento-osseous dysplasia (COD), 254Cementoenamel junction (CEJ), 240Cementum, 217buildup, 262Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), glove usage requirements, 70–71Centers of rotation, 143Central incisorsradiolucent restorations, 242fsupernumerary tooth, 261fCentral ray, 18aim, 177–178Cephalometric measurement, lateral skull projection (usage), 162Cephalometric radiography analysis, 158–159Cephalometrics, detection, 162Cephalostat, 162Certied Radiation Equipment Safety Ocer (CRESO)inspection, 194radiation survey, 66–67Cervical burnout, 240, 241fChair positionmandibular canines, 111mandibular incisors, 111mandibular molars, 113mandibular premolars, 112maxillary canines, 92, 109maxillary central and lateral incisors, 109, 109bmaxillary molars, 111maxillary premolars, 110occlusal/sagittal plane orientations, 89–90Chairside competence, maintaining high levels of, 193–194Chairside exposure procedures, 75b–76bChairside technique, 177, 193–194Characteristic curve, 38fCharacteristic x-rays, 11–12x-ray production, 12Charged coupling device (CCD), 173, 176fsensor, usage, 176fChemical fog, 38Chemical precipitation, 131Chemical reaction, 127Chernobyl, nuclear catastrophe, 44–45Childrenlm packet radiograph, 203fpathologic conditions, lateral oblique technique, usage, 203fpatient status, 202–204periapical lm tolerance, 202, 202freverse bitewings, 202–204Chin position, 143Chronic (long-term) eects, 49–50Circular collimation, 48Clark’s rule, 206–207Clear lm, 134, 134fCleft palate, 264, 265fClefts, cause, 264Cleidocranial dysostosis, 258, 260fClinical prociency, 200Closed-end, pointed cones, usage, 57–58Clusters, 44–45Coherent scatter, 45Coin test, 124usage, 124fCold sterilization, 73Collar, operator placement, 177fCollimation, 21f, 22, 57Collimator, 18Collimator cuto, 22, 56, 103example, 99fincidence, reduction, 88–89occurrence, 99Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), 41, 173Composites, 225, 241Composition, 37Compton eect, 46Compton interactions, electron interaction, 46 298 IndexComputed tomography (CT), 169, 186–187, 186fadvantages, 188, 188baxial plane, 187fcollimated x-ray beam, direction, 186disadvantages, 188, 188blm usage, 35image acquisition, 186number, 187radiation dose, 188radiolucency, 169scanner, scout lm exposure, 189scanning, unit, 186fsoft tissue window, 188ftissue density distinction, 187Computed tomography (CT) scanbone window, 188fparallel helical slice reformatting, 190fpatient cost, 188software usage, 189fComputerized axial tomography (CAT) scan, 186Concavity, 216–217Concha, 218b–223bConcrescence, 262Condyle, medial/lateral aspects (visualization), 167Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), 190axial view, 190fcoronal view, 190fCT image acquisition, 186sagittal view, 190fscanner, 189Cone beam volumetric tomography (CBVT), 189average absorbed dose, 190axial view, 190fcoronal view, 190fdental scanner, improvement, 189sagittal view, 190fCone cutting, 22, 103example, 99foccurrence, 99reduction, lm-holding devices (usage), 58Cones, 18cut, 56Condentiality, 277Congenitally missing teeth, 261Continuous analogue output signal, creation, 173–174Contrast medium, injection, 170fControl panelinfection control, 71–72plastic wrap coverage, 73fConventional radiography quality assurance, 194–195Conventional tomography, 168–169Conventional tube head, 30fCoolidge, William D., 2, 4Coronal plane, 186Coronoid process, destruction, malignant tumor impact, 268fCortical bone, 217Coulomb per kilogram (C/kg), 47CRANEX TOME tomographic unit (Soredex), 169fCrescent marks, 100–101Crest, 4, 5fCritical instrument, 71Critical organs, 50risks, 50Cross-contamination, 70–71concern, 176Cross-sectional tomography, 143Crown-root ratio, 244, 244fCumulative eective dose (CUMEfd), 65Cumulative eects, 49Cupping, 245fCurve of Spee, 216fCycle, 15Cysts, 268DDark lms, 102Dark image, 133Darkroom, 60, 133b–137bautomatic processing, 128b, 131–133automatic processordaylight loader, usage, 132flm insertion, 132fcare/maintenance, 129–130cell phones, impact, 124cleanliness, 130contents, 125–126dental responsibility, 123design/requirements, 123–126developer, change, 125developing solutions, 75development process, 126–129chemicals, usage, 125texplanation/discussion, 126–129dryers, 126environmental concerns, 130–131lm hangers, 126lm packet contamination, opening, 75fxing, 128–129solutions, 75solutions, change, 125hangers, lm placement, 126filluminating safelight, usage, 123–124light tightness, 123lighting, 123–124location, 123x-ray units, proximity, 123maintenance schedule, 194manual processing, 128boutside warning light, 124plumbing, 132processing solutions in, monitoring chart for, 196fprocessing tanks, 125record keeping, 130replenisher, addition, 125–126replenishment, 125–126sink, gooseneck faucet (convenience), 124–125size, 123solutions, 125, 130static electricity, 149thermostatic valve, usage, 124timers/thermometers, 126example, 126fventilation, 123washing (stop bath), 129water bath, thermostatic control, 125x-ray viewbox, 124Daylight loader, 132, 132fprocedure, 77busage, discouragement, 76Deciduous central incisor, root resorption, 259fDeciduous second molar, root resorption, 259fDeciduous teeth, 258Deep breathing, 205Denition evaluation, 206, 206fDens invaginatus, 263, 263fDense bone, formation, 252Dense bone island, 272Dense image, 133Densitycomparison, 194–195, 196freduction, 216–217Dental appliances, removal (failure), 102Dental chair, infection control, 71–72Dental diagnostic penetration range, 26Dental diagnostic radiology, 20Dental lmsize, 36types, 36Dental lm packetscomponents, 36fexposure, processing, 127intraoral grid placement, 210fproduction (Kodak), 36Dental hygienist, respondeat superior doctrine, 276Dental implant planning, CT scan, 189fDental malpractice suits, risk management, 276Dental oceprocessing tanks, 125fsolution strength, estimation, 194–195sta, patient and, 276Dental papilla, 257, 258fDental personnel, infection control, 72Dental practice, infection control, 70–71Dental professionalsclinical prociency, 200patient cooperation, 200procedure explanation, 200roles, 200Darkroom (Continued) 299IndexDental radiationexposure, perspective, 50–51user, state licensure, 275–276Dental radiographic normalizing/monitoring device, 196fDental radiographsmounting, 214necessity, patient reactions, 45prescription, Public Health Service guidelines, 61list, 61f–62fretention, 278Dental radiographyinfection control, 70–79performing, 200Dental radiologyrisk management, 276waste types, 130Dental tomographic units, availability, 168–169Dental x-ray lmcommercial introduction (Kodak), 35–36diagnostic quality, improvement, 35evolution, 35history, 35–36packet, components, 36size, 36Dental x-ray machine, 6f, 14–24basic electric circuit of, 16fcircuitry of, 17control panel of, 17–18, 17f–18felectricity for, 14–16federal regulations, 275maintenance, 194–195, 195fopen-ended PID, usage, 19output, measurement, ionization chamber (usage), 47fphases of, 17tPID, ionization chamber (placement), 47rectication of, 15–16timer of, 18, 18fx-ray beam, 18–22, 19fDental x-raysexposure, minimum/maximum scatter areas, 66frisk, quantication, 45tube, 8, 8fDentigerous cyst, 264lateral oblique projection, 265fmandibular occlusal projection, 265fpanoramic radiograph, 260fDentin, 217Dentinogenesis imperfecta, 250f, 264, 264fDentoalveolar abscess, 251–252, 252fDescriptive terminology, 214Detector, usage, 172Deterministic eects, 49Developercuto, 134, 134fpH, 127solutions, change, 127Developing solutions, usage, 129Development process, 126–129chemicals, usage, 125texplanation/discussion, 126–129Developmental disability, 201Diagnosis, denition, 232Diagnostic equipment, 56regulation, absence, 56Diagnostic lms, production, 232–233Diagnostic questions, 233–235DICOM images, 190Dierential absorption pattern, 26Dierential diagnosis, 232–233Digital full-mouth series, 177Digital image, 172–173composition, 174gray level, 174operator access, 177fDigital imaging, 41, 172–185technique, 177b–182bDigital imaging systemsexample, 173ftypes of, 172–173, 182Digital radiography, 142–143advantages, 175–176, 175b–176bbitewing projections, 179, 180fcost, 176cross-contamination, 176denition, 176disadvantages, 175b–176b, 176environmental friendliness, 175hard copies, 175imageadjustment/manipulation, 175formation, 210storage, 175legal aspects, 183mandibular canines, 180–181mandibular incisors, 179–180, 180fmandibular molars, 181–182, 182fmandibular premolars, 181, 181fmaxillary canines, 177–178, 178fmaxillary central incisors, 177maxillary molars, 179, 179fmaxillary premolars, 178–179, 178fpaperless oce, 175patient education, 175processing time, reduction, 175quality assurance, 197radiation dose, reduction, 175remote consultation, 175sensorfragility, 176placement, 176Digital sensors, 58barrier sheath, 74fexample, 174fmaintenance, 197Digital-specic unit, 173Dilaceration, 263, 263fDimensional accuracy, paralleling technique, 86Dimensional distortion, 108paralleling technique, 86Direct current (DC), 15Direct digital imaging, 41receptors, 41Direct digital radiography, 173, 182Direct eects (x-rays), 46Direct ion storage (DIS) dosimeter, 67fDirect radiography, indirect radiography, 177Direct supervision, 276Dirty rollers, 137, 137fDisability, 200Discolored lm, 134–135, 135fDisinfection, 73denition, 71process, 73Disposable lm holders, 89Distal roots, periapical condensing osteitis, 252fDistodens, term, 261Distomolar, term, 261Dose, 47–48equivalent, 47–48rate, 49reduction, 175Dose-response curve, 48–49importance, 48–49Double exposure, 102Double-lm mounts, 214–215Double-lm packet, 36–37preference, 36–37Double-sided emulsion, 37Drift, 56Dryer, 126Drying racks, 123Ductal obstructions, diagnosis, 211Duplicate radiographs, 133Duplicating lm, 35, 38availability, 38usage, 38Duplication procedure, 38example, 39fDuty cycle, 9Duty rating, 9EEarly periodontal bone loss, 245fEastman Kodak Company, dental x-ray lmintroduction, 35–36packets, production, 36Edentulous mandible, occlusal radiograph, 272fEdentulous panoramic survey, 84fEdentulous patient, positioning, 145fEdentulous premolar lm, identication/ orientation, 218b–223bEdentulous premolar radiograph, 218b–223bEdentulous series, 82–84Edentulous survey, example, 84fEdison, omas Alva, 1, 3 300 IndexEective dose, 50Eective focal area, 28, 29f18-lm full-mouth survey, 82fElectric current, 15Electric energy, quality/quantity (indications), 46Electricity, for x-ray machine, 14–16Electrolysis, 131Electromagnetic radiation, 4Electromagnetic spectrum, 4–7, 5fElectron cloud, 9–11, 10fElectronic sensor, usage, 172Electronic timerscalibration, 57usage, 57Electrons, 2f, 6–7source of, 8Electrostatic artifact, 136Elongation, 91b–104b, 114absence, 31–32Emulsioncross-sectional diagram, 37fthickness, impact, 37Enamel, 217pearls (enameloma), 262, 262fEnamel hypoplasia, 240–241Endodontic lling, silver cones for, 226fEndodontic lm-holding device, localizing ring (inclusion), 210fEndodontic problems, 210–211grid measurement, 210–211radiopaque media, 211Endostosis, 272, 273fEnergy absorption, 45Energy amount, measurement unit, 47Energy wave, 5fEnostosis, 272Entry point, 90Equipment, 56–59, 159cold sterilization, 73cross-contamination, 70–71Erosion, 240–241Erythema (skin reddening), 51Exostosis, 272Exposed x-ray lm, processing, 123Exposure, 47–48, 59chairside procedures, 75b–76bdoubling, 59, 102patient movement, 150example, 152froutine, 87–89development, 87step wedge before, 194–195, 196fswitch, infection control, 71–72technique, 66test, 194–195timing dial, 205Exposure time, 58, 89determination, 89reduction, 85Extension cone paralleling (XCP) technique, 85, 85fExternal oblique ridge, 218b–223b, 223f–224fExternal root resorption, 253–254, 254fExtraction sockets, 220f, 270–271, 272fExtraoral cassettesabsence, 203–204grids, usage, 160holders, availability, 160left lead marker, 41fExtraoral lm, 129availability, 39intensifying screens, usage, 123–124, 159occlusal lm packet, usage, 204fphotograph, 39fExtraoral projections, 143, 158, 228Extraoral radiographic technique, 161bExtraoral radiography, 197cassettes, usage, 39Extraoral techniques, 158–165mounting, 160fprocessing, 160projections, 160–164sensitivity, 160usage, indication categories, 158“Eyeballing”, 194Eyeglasses, removal failure, 153fEyes, 51exposure, 51protection, infection control, 72FFacial edema, 246fFacial jewelry, removal (failure), 102example, 103fFashion trends, 154Federal regulations, 275Fetal abnormality, 49Fetal cells, radiosensitivity, 52Field of view (FOV), 190Filament circuit, 17Film, 58automatic processing, 128b, 131–133badges, 67base, 37cross-sectional diagram, 37fbending, 100–101cassette, deceleration, 153characteristic curve, 38fclinical judgment, 60–63contaminated packet, removal (two-operator technique), 75fcontrast, 25–28, 38x-ray-lm characteristic, 38darkness, 102density, 25–28achievement, 38fblackness degree, 25developing, 127–128development process, 126–129chemicals, usage, 125texplanation/discussion, 126–129discolored, 134–135, 135femulsion, cracking, 101fenvironmental concerns, 130–131exposed receptacles, absence, 87–88exposure, 59xing, 128–129focal point/object, relationship, 30ffog, 27–28, 38sources, 38fogging, 133–136, 154fhangers, 126usage, 130identications, importance, 130image, dierence, 26lightness, 101cause, 101flong axis, parallel, 93bmaintenance, 197manual processing, 128bmounting, 160f, 213–231mounts, 214–215composition, 214–215procedure, 215–216overdevelopment, 133overlapping, 100fplacement, 97b, 126fparalleling technique, 208freverse bitewing, 203fposition, 90positioning, 29, 83, 99bprocessing, 28, 160projections, recommendation, 83tproperties of, 28rapid processing, 129components, 129frecord keeping, 130reference, 130removal, two-operator technique (usage), 75fretakes, 59reversal, 99–100example, 100frollers, cleaning, 132–133selection criteria, 61–63sensitivity, 37–38, 160determination, 37size, 36, 132solution levels, 130fstained, 134stop bath, 128technique, 59–60underdeveloped, 133, 133fviewing, 60conditions, 28washing, 129stop bath, 128Film holders, 58, 88–89example, 91ftypes, 89usage, 88–89Film (Continued) 301IndexFilm-holding devices, 55cone cutting reduction, 58example, 92flocalizing ring, usage, 87paralleling usage, 88fplacement, 90fusage, 205Filmless radiography, 172Film packets, 6barrier envelope, availability, 74components, 36contamination, opening, 75finfection control, 74–75orientation marker, 37foverbending, 101fplacement, 74–75problems, 100fsterilization/disinfection, 74usage, 98bFilm placement problems, 103–104, 103f, 208–210canine overlap, 209lingual frenulum, 208narrow arch, 208shallow palate, 208tori, 208–209trismus, 209–210Film processing techniques, 122–139Film-screen combination, 39–41, 159–160Film-screen system, 159Film speed, 37–38ANSI designation, 37determination, 37increase, 36Filter, 21Filtration, 21–22, 21f, 57purpose, 57Finished radiographsidentication/orientation, 214viewing, 60First molareruption, supernumerary tooth blockage, 261fmesial/distal roots (periapical condensing osteitis), 252fFirst permanent molar, root sack (development), 260fFirst premolarendodontic lling, silver cones, 226fpulp denticle, shapes/densities/presence, 250fFirst-stage periapical cemental dysplasia, 255fFissural cysts, 264Fistulous tract, palatal opening, 211fFixed bridge restoration, 225fFixer solutions, change, 130Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FLCOD), 254Fluorescence, 39Fluoride artifact, 136, 136fFocal area, 29fFocal cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD), 254Focal-lm distance (FFD), 20, 28–30, 29f, 59–60achievement, 159bisecting, 85fdistances, comparison, 31fexample, 60fimage magnication, relationship, 30fincrease, 29–30impact, 101frecommendation, 59–60usage, 85paralleling techniques, combination, 86–87total tissue volume, relationship, 59–60Focal plane, broken line, 145fFocal point, object/lm relationship, 30fFocal spot, 8Focal trough, 141f, 148Fogged lm, 133–136Follicle (dental sac), 257Follicular cyst, 260–261Foramen, 218b–223bForeign bodies, 270Foreshortening, 91b–104b, 114absence of, 31–32Fossa, paired radiolucent structures, 218b–223bFourth molar, term, 261Fracture lines, proximity, 251fFractured mandible, panoramic radiograph, 271fFractures (detection), submentovertex projection (usage), 163–164Frankfort plane, 143Free radical, 46Frequency, 4, 5fF-speed emulsion, introduction, 36F-speed lmradiation exposure, reduction, 37–38speed, 37Full disclosure, 276Full-mouth bisecting series, 109b–114bFull-mouth intraoral radiographic survey, 81Full-mouth pediatric survey, 84fFull-mouth radiographic survey, composition, 81Full-mouth series, mounts, 214fFull-mouth survey (FMS), 81, 91b–104bexample, 82fmandible/maxilla, teeth appearance, 81radiographs, number (modication), 81Full-survey mounts, 214–215Full-wave rectication, 15–16, 16fFurcation, 245Fusion, 262, 262fGGag reex, 204stimuli types, 204Gagging, 204–206bite blocks, impact, 205deep breathing, 205lm-holding devices, impact, 205lm order/technique, 205gargles, 205hypnosis, usage, 205lozenges, 205operator attitude, 204–205salt, impact, 205–206sprays, 205Gamma radiation, 4, 47–48Gamma rays, x-rays (overlap), 5Gargles, 205GBX-2 Safelight Filter (Kodak), 123–124Gemination, 262, 263fGendex GXDP 700 Series, 142fGeneral radiation, 11–12General supervision, 276Generators, 130–131Genetic eects, 49Genial tubercle, 218b–223b, 222fGhost image, 146Ghosting, 154fGingivitis, 244Glandular obstructions, diagnosis, 211Glass ionomers, 225Globulomaxillary cyst, 265fGloves, infection control, 72Glutaraldehyde, usage, 73Gold post/core, 225fGonadal dose, 48Gonads, 52radiation, reduction, 59Gooseneck faucet, convenience, 124–125Gowns, infection control, 72Gray (Gy), 47Gray level, 174Grids, 160example, 160fmarkings, 210fmeasurement, endodontic problem, 210–211Group D lmusage, 37–38x-ray exposure, 57fGroup E lmgroup D lm, comparison, 58usage, 37–38x-ray exposure, 57fGroup F lmusage, 37–38x-ray exposure, 57fHHalf-value layer (HVL), 20, 20fbeam description, 46Half-wave rectication, 15, 15fHamular notch, 218b–223b, 221fHamular process (hamulus), 218b–223bHand sanitizer, 72f 302 IndexHand washing, importance, 72Hard copies, 175production, 186Hard palate, superimposition, 151fHard tissue, viewing, 186Headleakage, 56sagittal plane orientation, 90ftiltexample, 151fproblems, 150Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), 200, 277b–278bHealth questionnaire, 276Hearingaid, presence, 154fimpairment, 201–202Heat production, 8–9Hematopoietic bone marrow, dental x-ray exposure, 51–52Hemostats, 88–89Hepatitis, 70vaccine, 77Hepatitis B virus (HBV), immunization, 77Herpes, impact, 70Herringbone eect, 99–100High contrast, 25High-contrast lms, appearance, 26High-contrast radiograph, 28fHigh voltage, 8High-voltage circuit, 17Hittorf-Crookes tube, 2, 2fHolding devices, 160Horizontal angulation, 91achievement, 91change, 209fHorizontal bone loss, 245fHot-cathode x-ray tube, 4Hounseld units, 187Human immunodeciency virus (HIV), 72Human tissue, water composition, 46Hypercementosis, 262, 262fHyperdontia, 261Hyperostotic lines, 268Hyperparathyroidism, radiolucent lesion, 270fHypnosis, 205Hypodontia, 261IIdiopathic osteosclerosis, 272Illuminating safelight, 123–124Illuminator, 32–33, 32fImageacquisition, 189speed, increase, 175–176tomographic mode, 186adjustment, 175contrast, 28degradation, 160density, 25detail, 28–31dierence, 26dimensions, 185distortion, 31–33elongated, 114fenlargement, 31–33foreshortened, 114fgray level, 174horizontal overlapping, 99layer, 140–141focal through, 141f, 148magnicationcause, 29–30focal-lm distance, relationship, 30fobject-lm distance, relationship, 30f–31fmanipulation, 175, 183movement, 32nature, 174overlapping, 100fpenumbra, 28fPSP production, 174quality, 148receptors, 35–43usage, 35sharpness, 28decrease, OFD (increase), 85storage, 175superimposition, elimination, 188Imaginary bisecting line, 108Imaging plate, 174Immunization, 77Impacted canine, palatal relationship of, 118fImpacted maxillary canine, 206fImpacted teeth, 258–261, 260fImpactions, 258–260Impulses, 15Incipient caries, 238, 238fIncisive canal, 218b–223bIncisive foramen, 218b–223bIndications, 158–159Indirect digital imaging, 41receptors, 41Indirect digital radiography, 173, 182Indirect eects (x-rays), 46Indirect pulp capping, 241, 241fInduction coil, 2fInfection control, 70–71procedures, 87protocol, 6terms/denitions, 71Infection sources, 71–72Inferior alveolar canal, 218b–223bInferior nasal concha, 218b–223bInformed consent, 276Infrabony pocket, 245Instant hand sanitizer, 72fInstruments, cold sterilization, 73Insurance claims, 278Intensifying screens, 28, 39–41, 58cassettesopen position, 40fusage, 159exposure time requirements, variation, 40light, emission, 39–40speed, variation, 40type of, 28usage, 123–124x-rays, impact, 40fIntensity, 21Internal oblique ridge, 218b–223b, 223f–224fInternal root resorption, 253, 254fInternational Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), MCD recommendations, 66Interpretation, denition, 232Interproximal bone, crest, 242Interproximal caries, 238–239bitewing radiograph, 238fimage, 239fradiographic appearance, 239radiographic sign, 239Interproximal decay, diagnosis, 238–239Interseptal bone, ideal level, 242fIntraoce peer review, 193–194Intraoral exposure, lead apron/collar (usage), 59Intraoral lmhangers, variation, 126packets, sizes, 36examples, 36fplacement, impossibility, 203Intraoral grid, placement, 210fIntraoral periapical projections, paralleling technique (principle), 84–85Intraoral radiographic technique, 80–106Intraoral radiographscriteria, 85btaking, principles, 87Intraoral radiographyfactors, 160–161lm placement techniques, 31–32impossibility, 204Intraoral sensors, 176, 176fIntraosseous wires, healing mandibular fracture with, 227fInverse square law, 2, 30–31, 31fIonization, 7–9, 7f–8fchamberplacement, 47usage, 47fIonizing radiation, 1–13agents, 49biologic, impact, 44–45eects, 44–46exposure, 47information, confusion, 45Ions, 46Isotope, 6–7Image (Continued) 303IndexJJoint space, contrast medium (injection), 170fKKells, C. Edmond, 1, 3Kilovolt (kV), 15–16Kilovoltage, 8, 56–57milliamperage versus, 19–21range, 26Kilovoltage peak (kVp), 15–16checks on, 194meter, 17fKoenig, Walter, 1–3K shell, 7LLabial mounting, 215Labial viewing, x-ray lm orientation, 215fLamina, 140Lamina dura, 217Laminates, 225Laminograms, 140Laptopexample, 173fusage, 172Latent image, 123, 126–127Latent period, 49Lateral fossa, 218b–223b, 219fLateral incisors, 91–92absence, 261fchair position, 91examples, 91f–92flm position, 91horizontal angulation, 92point of entry, 91vertical angulation, 91Lateral oblique lmdentigerous cyst, 265fmandible fracture, 271fLateral oblique projection, 161, 202–203, 203fexample, 228fusage, 161Lateral oblique radiograph, coronoid process destruction, 268fLateral skull, posteroanterior projection, 162Lateral skull projection, 161–162clinical indication, 162examples, 162f, 229fusage, 161–162Lead aprons, 6, 59draping, 87infection control, 70–71operator placement, 177fplacement, 153fproblems, 152–153, 153fthyroid collar, inclusion, 59fusage, 143Lead contamination, 197Lead diaphragm, 22, 22fLeft carotid arteries, calcications (panoramic radiograph), 148fLeft joints, panoramic projection, 167–168Left mandible, residual cyst, 253fLeft maxillary central/lateral incisors, 92f, 109fLeft maxillary sinus, radiopaque tumor, 269fLegal considerations, 275–279Lesionsbenign versus malignant, 268borders, 235fdescription of, 267–268distinct borders, 235fextent of, 267–268location, 267radiolucent versus radiopaque, 267Leukemia, induction, somatic hazard, 51–52Liability, 276Licensure, 275–276Light lms, 101cause, 101fLight fog, 38Light leaks, 137, 137fLight tightness, 123Lighting, 123–124Line pairs per millimeter, 174Linear dose-response curves, 48fLingual bone, 245fLingual caries, 238f, 239–240Lingual foramen, 218b–223b, 222fLingual frenulum, lm placement problems in, 208Lingual mounting, 215Lingual surfaces, early lesions, 239–240Lingual viewing, x-ray lm orientation, 215fLip line, 218fLip shadow, 218b–223bLiving tissue, ionizing radiation (chemical changes), 45Local radiation code, 56Localization problems, 206–207denition evaluation, 206, 206fpantomography, 207, 207fright-angle technique, 207tube shift, 206–207Localized exposure, 48Localized radiation, 48dierentiation, 48illustration, 48fLocalizing device, usage, 92bLocalizing ring, 88–89lm oset, 94binclusion, 210fusage, 87bitewings (absence), 95bLong axis, parallel diculty, 83Long-beam tube head, 30fLong cone technique, 85Long scale, 26–27Long-scale contrast, 26–27Long-term eects, 50Low contrast, 25Low-grade pulpal necrosis, response, 252Low-level exposures, series, 50Low palatal vault problem, vertical angulation for, 208fLower anterior region, periapical radiographs, 208fLower anterior teeth, blurring/widening, 150fLower rst/second molars, bifurcation bone loss, 246fLower incisorslingual surfaces, supragingival calculus, 243fpulp stones, 251fLozenges, 205L shell, 7MMagnetic eld, 191Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 4–5, 169, 185, 191application, 191, 191fexample, 170fMalar bone, 218b–223bMalignancy (cancer), 268Malignant lesions, benign lesions versus, 268Malignant tumor, impact, 254flateral oblique radiograph, 268fMalposed teeth, 262Malpractice suits, records, 276Management, 200Mandiblebuccal plate expansion, benign tumor impact, 268fcoronoid process, 218b–223bimage, 221fedentulous occlusal survey, 85fexample, 161fextraction socket, 272ffracturelateral oblique lm, 271fpanoramic radiograph, 271fghost images, 146finferior border, 218b–223bimages, 222f–224fradiograph, 223flateral oblique projection, 161example, 161fusage, 161metallic foreign body, presence, 271fmetallic implant, distal abutment, 271fpanoramic radiograph, 142radiographic anatomy, recognition/ understanding, 218b–223bresidual cyst, 253f 304 Indexteeth, tumor envelopment, 269fteeth appearance, 81third molar problems, 207–208topographic occlusal projection of, 117fMandibular arch, focal trough, 151fMandibular canal, 218b–223b, 223f–224fMandibular canines, 96–97, 111–112, 112farea, 218b–223b, 223fchair position, 96, 111digital radiography, 180–181, 181fexamples, 97flm position, 96horizontal angulation, 97, 112point of entry, 96, 112receptor position, 111, 112bvertical angulation, 96, 112Mandibular condyle, 226Mandibular rst molar, occlusal caries, 240fMandibular foramen, 226Mandibular fracture, healing, 227fMandibular incisors, 95–96, 111, 112farea, 218b–223b, 222fchair position, 95, 111digital radiography, 179–180, 180fexamples, 97flm position, 95horizontal angulation, 96, 111point of entry, 95, 111receptor position, 111, 111bvertical angulation, 95, 111Mandibular mixed dentition, 259fMandibular molars, 98–99, 113–114, 113farea, 218b–223b, 224fmixed dentition, 259fchair position, 98, 113digital radiography, 181–182, 182fexample, 98flm position, 98horizontal angulation, 99, 114point of entry, 98, 113receptor position, 113, 114bvertical angulation, 98, 113Mandibular occlusal lm, 228fdentigerous cyst, 265fMandibular occlusal technique, 116Mandibular pathologic conditions/ impactions, extraoral technique (usage), 161Mandibular periapical radiographs, patient positions, 89fMandibular posterior area, right-angle occlusal radiograph, 116fMandibular premolars, 97–98, 112–113, 113farea, 218b–223b, 223fchair position, 98, 112digital radiography, 181, 181fexamples, 98flm position, 98horizontal angulation, 98, 113point of entry, 98, 113receptor position, 113, 113bvertical angulation, 98, 113Mandibular right-angle occlusal lm, lm placement/PID position, 116fMandibular third molarbony impaction, 260ffollicle, 258fimpaction, 260ftooth germ, 257fMandibular tori/torusinclusion, 218b–223blocation, 209Manual processing, 128bManual tanks, chemical strength and solution level of, 194Marking grid, 210–211Marking letters, 159fMasks, infection control, 72Matrix, 187Mattercomponents of, 7fx-ray absorption, 45x-ray interaction, 45–46illustration, 46fMaxillaedentulous occlusal survey, 85focclusal radiograph, 117fpanoramic radiograph, 142radiographic anatomy, recognition/ understanding, 218b–223bright-angle occlusal projection, 118fright-angle occlusal view, lm placement/PID position, 118fteeth appearance, 81third molar problems, 207topographic occlusal view, lm placement/PID position, 117fzygomatic process, 218b–223b, 220fMaxillary anterior lm, dierentiation, 215–216Maxillary canines, 92–93, 109–110, 110b, 110farea, 218b–223b, 219fchair position, 109digital radiography, 177–178, 178f, 180–181distal overlap, horizontal angulation (change), 209fexamples, 92flm position, 92horizontal angulation, 93, 109–110impacted, 206fpoint of entry, 93, 109receptor placement, 93breceptor position, 109vertical angulation, 93, 109Maxillary central incisors, 91–92, 109area, 218fchair position, 91, 109, 109bdigital radiography, 177examples, 91f–92f, 259flm position, 91fractured crowns, 251fhorizontal angulation, 92, 109point of entry, 91, 109, 109froot fractures, 270fvertical angulation, 91, 109Maxillary denture, removal failure, 153fMaxillary rst premolarendodontic lling, 206fmesial portion, image overlap, 209Maxillary incisors, 218b–223broots, 151fMaxillary lateral incisors, 109chair position, 109, 109bhorizontal angulation, 109point of entry, 109, 109fvertical angulation, 109Maxillary molar radiographbisecting technique, usage, 85f–86ffogging, 133fMaxillary molar regionposterior part, 221fretained root tip, 271fMaxillary molar roots, 217Maxillary molars, 94, 111, 111farea, 218b–223b, 221fchair position, 94, 111digital radiography, 179, 179f, 181–182examples, 94flm position, 94horizontal angulation, 94, 111point of entry, 94, 111receptor position, 111, 111bvertical angulation, 94, 111Maxillary occlusal lm, 228fMaxillary occlusal technique, 116–117Maxillary premolars, 93, 110–111, 110farea, 218b–223b, 268fimage, 220fchair position, 93, 110digital radiography, 178fexamples, 93flm position, 93horizontal angulation, 93, 111point of entry, 93, 110receptor position, 110, 111bvertical angulation, 93, 111Maxillary sinusoor, 218b–223bimage, 219f–221fradiolucent area, 218b–223bstructure, topographic view of, 117topographic occlusal radiograph of, 119fMaxillary torus (torus palatinus), 218b–223b, 221fpresence, 208–209Maxillary tuberosity, 218b–223bMaxillofacial radiology, 158Maximum permissible dose (MPD), 65–66reduction, ICRP recommendation, 65Maximum scatter areas, 66fMandible (Continued) Mandibular premolars (Continued) Maxillary central incisors (Continued) 305IndexMeasurement grid, 210–211Median nasal septum, 218b–223b, 218fMedian palatine cyst, occlusal lm, 265fMedian palatine suture, 218b–223bMedical waste, 130Medical x-rays, 5Medullary spaces, 217enlargement, 270fMental foramen, 218b–223b, 223fMental ridge, 218b–223b, 222f–223fMesial roots, periapical condensing osteitis, 252fMesial second molar, periapical radiograph, 238fMesiodens, 261, 261fMetabolic bone lesions, 268–269Metabolic conditions, manifestation, 268–269Metal-based partial denture, nonremoval, 103fMetal earrings, removal failure, 153fMetal objects, density, 155Metallic foreign body, presence, 271fMetallic implant, distal abutment, 271fMetallic pins, 225fMetallic restoration, 242fMicroorganismabsence, sterilization production, 73denition, 70Midsagittal plane, 143example, 144fMilliamperage, 8checks, 194dial, 8kilovoltage versus, 19–21Milliampere (mA), 16control, 17fsetting, 8–9Milliampere seconds (mAs), 56–57Minimal OFD, determination, 29Minimum scatter areas, 66fMixed dentition, 258f–259fMixed lesion, 234fMobility, problems, 200–201Molar bitewing projections, 94–95chair position, 94lm position, 94horizontal angulation, 95point of entry, 94vertical angulation, 95Molecular structure, 6–7Molecule, 6–7Monitor, usage, 172Monitoring devices, 67Morlite M-2 (Kodak), 123–124Mounting, orientation, 218b–223bMounts, 214–215Mouth oor, submandibular duct (radiopaque salivary stone), 272fMovement, 32, 32fMugnon, Francois, 172Multilocular lesion, 235fMultiplanar reconstructed images (MPR images), 190Mylohyoid ridge, 218b–223b, 222fNNarrow arch, lm placement problem, 208Nasal cavity, oor, 218b–223b, 218f–219fNasal fossa, 218b–223b, 219foor, 218f, 220fNasal septum, 218b–223bNasolabial fold, 219fNasopalatine cyst, 234f, 264fNasopalatine (incisive) foramen, 218b–223b, 218fNegligent hygienist, 276Neutrons, 6–7NewTom 9000, 189unit, 189f19-lm full-mouth survey, 82fNomad portable x-ray unit, 201, 201fNon-disposable lm holders, 89Noncritical instrument, 71Nondiagnostic image, cause, 100fNonlinear dose-response curves, 48fNonstochastic eects, 49Normal anatomy, 234fNormalizing device, 194–195, 196fNosecartilaginous shadow, 218b–223bcolumella, 218fshadow, 219fsoft tissue, 218b–223bNuclear medicine, 191Nucleus, 6–7Nutrient canals, 218b–223b, 222fOObjectcontrast, 26–27density, 25focal point/lm, relationship, 29f–30flocalization, pantomographic redundant image (usage), 207fposition, 29thickness, relative eects, 238fObject-lm distance (OFD), 28, 31image magnication, relationship, 30f–31fincrease, impact, 85parallelism, necessity, 31Object-receptor distance. see Object-lm distance (OFD)Oblique ridges, 218b–223bOcclusal caries, 239, 240fOcclusal lm packetsextraoral lm usage, 204ffront and back of, 116fOcclusal pits, carious area, 239Occlusal plane orientations, 89–90Occlusal projections, 108–117type, 228usage, 83use of, 115bOcclusal radiographs, 228buccal/lingual plate expansion, benign tumor, 268fOcclusal receptors, 108–116Occupational exposure, 71Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), glove usage requirements, 70–71Odontoma, radiograph, 269fOligodontia, 261Open contact, restoration, 244fOpen-ended lead-lined cylinders, 30Open-ended lead-lined cylindrical collimator, 58fOpen-ended lead-lined rectangles, usage, 30Open-ended lead-lined rectangular collimator, 58fOperatorbarrier requirements, 67–68concern, 55digital images, access, 177fdosage/protection, 65–68lm loading, 76gloves, wearing, 72flead apron/collar placement, 177fmaximum permissible dose, 65–66position, 67fprotection, 65–69radiation monitoring, 66–67shielding requirements, 67–68Optically scanned digital radiography, 173, 182Oral-antral communication, 220fOrgans, radiation eect, 50bOrientationdot, 37marker, 37fplanes, 187fOrthoceph OC100 D direct digital cephalometric imaging unit, 162fOrthodontic brackets/wires, 227fOrthodontic cephalometric radiography analysis, 158–159Orthophos XG 5 panoramic unit, 143fOsseointegrated implant, periapical radiograph, 271fOsteoradionecrosis, 52Output, checks on, 194Outside warning light, 124Ova, radiosensitivity, 52Overbending lm packet, 101fOvercontoured crown, 244fOverdeveloped lm, 133, 134fOverexposed radiograph, 102fOverexposure, 60, 102Overhang, restoration, 244fOverhead white light, 124Overlapped bitewing, 103f 306 IndexOverlapped lms, 137, 137fOverlapped images, 100fOverlapping, 100, 103Overretained teeth, 257–258Overretention, 258Ownership, 277–278PPaget’s disease, 269fPalatal opening, stulous tract, 211fPalatelm placement problem, 208radiolucent area, 150Palatine cyst, median, 265fPanoramic cassette, intensifying screen, 40fPanoramic lms, 129backward position, 150example, 151feyeglasses, removal failure, 153ffogging, 154fforward position, 150head tilt, 150example, 151fintensifying screens, usage, 129lead apron placement, problem, 152–153maxillary denture, removal failure, 153fmetal earrings, removal failure, 153fmetal objects, removal failure, 153fmixed dentition, 258fpalate, radiolucent area, 150patientmovement, 152fsitting/standing, avoidance, 152patient slouching, 153fprocessor insertion, 132fradiographic anatomy, 225–228, 227fsalivary stones, 272ftongue position, 152fusage, indication, 147Panoramic image, 146Panoramic imaging artifacts, 154Panoramic projection, 167–168Panoramic radiograph, 140–157anatomic landmarks, 147fcalcications, 148fcarotid artery stents, 154fdentigerous cyst, 260ffractured mandible, 271fhearing aid, presence, 154findications, 149left maxillary sinus, radiopaque tumor, 269fpiercings, ghosting, 154fstatic marks, 149fthird molar impaction, 233ftracing, 147fupper border, aneurysm clamp, 154fPanoramic radiographycassettes, usage, 39extraoral procedure, 76–77interpretation, 149preparation/positioning, rules/technique, 149, 150b–153bprocessing, 149technique, 149, 149bPanoramic tomographyadvantages, 146–148cost, 149disadvantages, 146–149distortion, 149dose, 148focal trough, 148image layer, 148image quality, 148overlap, 148overuse, 149patient cooperation, 148quality control, 147–148simplicity, 148superimposition, 148–149time, 148Panoramic units, positioning requirements, 143bPanoreximage redundancy, 207unit, 140redundant image, 272fPantomogram, 142–143panoramic radiograph, 142tomography, 142Pantomographic redundant image, 207fPantomography, 207Paperless oce, 175Parallel helical slices, CT scan reformatting, 190fParalleling extended-cone technique, 85fParalleling method, 59Paralleling technique, 31, 32f, 59, 84–87advantages, 85–87bisecting technique, comparison, 85–87disadvantages, 85–87lm-holding devices, 88flingual frenulum and, 208long cone technique, confusion, 85objections, 87principles, 84–85radiographs, 86fsuperimposition, absence, 86–87usage, 177vertical angulation, 90–91Parallelismachievement, 96bnecessity, 31Paramolar, term, 261Parental exposure, 71Partial anodontia, 261fParticulate radiations, 4Pathogen, 70Pathologic bone condition, diagnosis, 267Patientsanterior teeth positioning, 144fbedridden condition, 201bite block, plastic barrier cover, 77fCCD sensor placement, 176fconcerns, 55, 68condentiality, 277contact, lm cassette deceleration, 153dental professional cooperation, 200developmental disability, 201disabilities, 200–202dosage, 51–52education, 175lm, movement, 87forward position, 150example, 150ffull-mouth series, 81–82head, occlusal/sagittal plane, 99head tilt, 150example, 151fhearing impairment, 201–202history, 71incorrect position, 145flead apron placement, 145f, 153fmanagement, importance, 200metal-based partial denture, nonremoval, 103fmobility, problems, 200–201movement, 28, 143, 150, 152fchance, increase, 87impact, 102fphysical disability, 200position, examples, 89f–90fposture, 143, 144bprocedure explanation, 200protection, 55radiationexposure, 51guidelines, 61record, 276–277relations, 276rights, 277b–278bsitting/standing, 152slouching, 152fspecial needs, 200–202stress, 199vision impairment, 202Pediatric full-mouth survey, 81–82, 84fPediatric patients, 202–204endodontic problems, 210–211lm placement problems, 208–210gagging, 204–206localization problems, 206–207problems, 204–211radiographing advice, 204breverse bitewings, 202–204show and tell approach, 204third molar problems, 207–208Penumbra, 28, 28fPeriapical cemental dysplasia (PCD), 254Periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia (PCOD), 254Periapical condensing osteitis, 252Periapical cyst, 251–252, 252fPanoramic radiography (Continued) Patients (Continued) 307IndexPeriapical disease, 255fPeriapical lm, 132child tolerance, 202, 202ftechnique, 202fPeriapical granuloma, 251–252, 252fPeriapical lesions, 251–254, 251fPeriapical pathologic condition, 223fPeriapical pathology, 251–252Periapical projectiondental appearance, 81factors, 89method, 89–91Periapical radiographscaries, appearance, 238flower anterior region, 208fosseointegrated implant, 271fright mandibular molar area, 215fPeriapical radiography, maxillary torus (torus palatinus) problems, 208–209Period of injury, 49Periodontal abscess, 245, 246fPeriodontal anatomic structures, identication, 242Periodontal bone loss, 246fPeriodontal disease, 241–245advanced stage, 245anatomic conguration, 244diagnosis/evaluation, 241–242early stage, 244–245, 245fmoderate stage, 245normal periodontal structures in, 242–243restorations, 243risk factors, 243–244stages, 244–245techniques, 243Periodontal ligament (membrane), 217bers, 243Periodontal structures, 242–243Permanent canine eruption, odontoma blockage, 259fPermanent lateral incisor/canines, absence, 261fPermanent molar, root sack (development), 260fPermanent teeth, eruption, 258Personal protective equipment (PPE), 71–72Pharyngeal airspace, 226Phosphor, 39Photoelectric eect, 46Photoelectric interactions, 46Photons, 4Photostimulable phosphor plate (PSP), 41, 173Physical disability, 200radiographs, usage, 201Pixels, 174Plastic wrap, coverage, 76fPM 2002 CC Proline panoramic machine, 143fPocket dosimeters, 67Point of entry, 90Points of rotation, 140Porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) crowns, 226fPorcelain jacket, gold post/core, 225fPortable x-ray shield, 67fPortaray transportable x-ray examination unit (Siemens), 201fPosition-indicating device (PID), 18, 19f, 57–58examples, 91f–92finfection control, 71–72ionization chamber, placement, 47length, emphasis, 85objections, 87placement, 178fplastic wrap coverage, 73fusage, 57–58Positioning board, usage, 167Positron emission tomography, 185Posterior occlusal topographic view, 117Posterior periapical radiographs, 83f, 221fPosterior projections, size #0 pediatric lm, 83fPosterior teethPFM crowns, 226fpulp chambers, 250fPosterior topographic occlusal projection, 118fPosteroanterior projection, 162–163companion projection, 162example, 163fWaters’ view, variation, 163Posteroanterior view (Waters’ view), 163image, 229fPosture, 143Pregnancy, 52, 68occupational exposure, 68radiation exposure, concern, 68Premolar area, supernumerary tooth, 259f–260fPremolar periapicals, horizontal angulation (impact), 218b–223bPremolar projections, 94–95chair position, 94lm position, 94horizontal angulation, 95image, 224fpoint of entry, 94vertical angulation, 95Premolar response, overcontoured crown, 244fPremolar roots, hyperparathyroidism, 270fPrimary beam, scatter radiation, production, 56fPrimary radiation, 45denition, 55shielding, 67Primary teeth, overretention, 260fPrimordial cyst, 264Privacy Rule, 277b–278bPrivacy Standards, 277b–278bProcessed lms, comparison, 130example, 130fProcessing lm hanger, lm mounting, 160fProcessing procedures, 76bProcessing solutions, 75monitoring chart for, 196fProcessing tanks, 125fcleaning, 130lids, closure, 130Progeny (ospring), somatic tissue, 49Projections, 160–164Prophylaxis, providing, 77Protective barriers, 67–68Protective clothing, infection control, 72Protons, 6–7Psychogenic stimuli, 204Pterygomaxillary ssure, 226–228Pulp, 217Pulp canalsearly calcication, 250fradiographic densities, dierences, 249–250Pulp capping, 233fPulp chamber, 217early calcication, 250ffracture lines, proximity, 251fimage, 250fradiographic densities, dierences, 249–250recession, 250fPulp denticlesappearance, 250shapes/densities/presence, 250Pulp horns, 217Pulp stones, 250, 251fPulpal lesions, 249–251anatomy, 249–250Pulpitis, 250–251, 251fPulpotomy, usage, 242fQQuality assurance, 84, 193–198conventional radiography, 194–195digital radiography, 197Quality-assurance (QA) program, 193Quality factor (Q), 47–48Quaternary ammonium compound, usage, 73RRadiation, 4absorption, 36–37acute eects, 49annual U.S. exposure, 51tbiologic eects, 44–54braking, 11–12caries, 52cell recovery, 49characteristic, 12chronic eects, 49 308 Indexclinical judgment, 60–63concepts, 48–50CRESO survey, 66–67deterministic eects, 49dosages, 190eects, 50benergy aspect of, 6general, 11–12genetic eects, 49guidelines, 61history, 60intensity, 30, 31flatent period, 49leakage, patient exposure, 56long-term eects, 50measurement units, 46–48monitoring, 66–67patient guidelines, 61period of injury, 49protection, 30riskestimates, 50factors, 50sensitivity, 50–52short-term eects, 49somatic eects, 49stochastic eects, 49transmission, amount, 28units, 47tRadiation absorbed dose (rad), 47absorbed dose unit, 47Radiation dose, 47equivalent, 47–48increase, 188rate, 49reduction, 175Radiation exposure, 47–48attention, 44–45doubling, 59reduction, 159F-speed lm, usage, 37–38Radiation-induced cancer, cause (analysis), 50Radiation inspections, 275Radioactive, term, 4Radiobiology, denition, 46Radiofrequency energy, 191Radiofrequency waves, application, 191Radiographic anatomy, 213–231normal, 216–217for panoramic lms, 225–228recognition/understanding, 218b–223bRadiographic duplicating lmavailability, 38usage, 38Radiographic duplication, homemade setup, 38fRadiographic duplicator, 39fRadiographic emulsion, silver halide (energizing), 126–127Radiographic equipment, 159Radiographic examination, performing, 82–83Radiographic interpretation, principles, 232–236Radiographic landmarks, interpretation, 216–217Radiographic survey, 81–84lm projections (recommendation), 83tRadiographic systems, AAOMR preventive procedures outline of, 194Radiographic tooth anatomy, 217, 217fRadiographs, 4comparison, 206–207distorted, 115fdouble exposure, 102fduplication, 133safelight conditions, 38elongated, 115fexposure, 126–127grid markings, 210flateral oblique technique, usage, 203focclusal lm packet, usage, 204foverexposure, 102frubber dam frame, superimposition, 210fsafety, 48–49stained, 135ftwo-dimensional representation, 217underexposure, 101fviewing, 60viewbox, usage, 32–33, 32fRadiography, 175favoidance, 52performing, 200Radiolucent (RL), term, usage, 26, 214Radiolucent (RL) anterior synthetic restorations, 225fRadiolucent (RL) defect, 265fRadiolucent (RL) lesion, 234f, 267hyperparathyroidism, 270fRadiolucent (RL) line, 250Radiolucent (RL) restorations, 242fRadionuclides, 4Radionuclide scanning, 191Radiopaque (RO), term, usage, 26, 214Radiopaque (RO) anterior synthetic restoration, 226fRadiopaque (RO) base, 242fRadiopaque (RO) lesion, 233f, 267Radiopaque (RO) markings, 146fRadiopaque (RO) media, 211Radiopaque (RO) spurs/ridges, 218b–223bRadiopaque (RO) tumor, panoramic radiograph, 269fRadioresistant cell, 50Radiosensitive cell, 50RAPD, 88–89RAPD Positioning System, 22Raper, Howard Riley, 2, 4Rapid processing, 129system, components, 129fRare earth elements, 40Receptor, position, 90Receptor holders, 58Receptor plane, 116–117Recessed target, 30Recessed tube, 30Record keeping, 194Records, 276–277Rectangular collimation, 22, 23f, 55example, 57fusage, 90recommendation, 57Rectication, 15–16Redundant image, 272fReference lm, 130, 194–195, 196fRemote consultation, 175Reproductive cells, radiosensitivity, 52Res gestae theory, 276Residual cyst, 252, 253fResidual granuloma, 252Residual periapical lesions, 252Resource Recovery Act of 1976, 130–131Respondeat superior doctrine, 276Restorations, 225Restorative materials, 241Retained root tips, density, 270Retakes, 59Retention, 278Reticulation, 136, 136fReverse bitewing radiographexample, 203flm placement, 203ftube position, 203fReverse bitewings, 202–204Ridge resorption, 83Ridges, 218b–223bRight-angle projections, 115Right-angle technique, 85, 207Right joints, panoramic projection, 167–168Right mandibular molar area, periapical radiograph, 215fRight maxillary central/lateral incisors, 92f, 109fRiskestimates, 50factors, 50management, 276Roentgen, Wilhelm Conrad, 1–2On a New Kind of Rays: A Preliminary Communication, 2photograph, 2fradiograph, 3fRoentgen equivalent man (rem), 47Roentgen (R), 3, 47Roentgenology, 3Rollers, dirty, 137, 137fRollins, William, 2–4Rootfractures, 270fsack, development, 260fmaxillary molar region, 271fRadiation (Continued) 309IndexRoot resorption, 253causes, 253chronic periodontal infection, impact, 253fexternal, 253–254, 254fimage, 235f, 259finternal, 253, 254fmalignant tumor, impact, 254forthodontic movement, impact, 253ftrauma, impact, 253fRoot tips, 270Rotating anode, 9fRotation, centers, 143Rotational tomography, 142fRotation points, 140Rubber dam frames, superimposition, 210fRVG system (RadioVisioGraphy), 172SSafelight, 123–124, 132availability, 123fillumination, 123–124Safelighting, coin test, 124fSagittal plane, 186Sagittal plane orientations, 89–90, 114patient position, 90fSaliva ejectors, usage, 210Salivary calculi, 271–272Salivary gland disease, treatment, 271–272Salivary glandsirradiation, 52tumors, diagnosis, 211Salivary stones, 271–272, 272fdiagnosis, 211Salt, for gagging, 205–206Sandwich receptors, 115–116Scatter, production, 57Scattered radiation, 27–28Scatter radiation, 18fog, 38production, 56fScout lm, 167exposure, 189Scratched lm, 135, 135fSecond molarclub-shaped root, 262fearly bifurcation involvement, 245fsecondary dentin formation, 250fSecond premolar, thermal stimulation sensitivity, 251fSecond-stage radiolucent lesion, 255fSecondary dentindeposition, 249–250formation, 250fSecondary radiationdenition, 55production, 45shielding, 67Selection criteria, 61–63Selective penetration, 26Self-wave rectication, 15Semi-critical instrument, 71Sensitivity (speed), 37–38Sensors, 41, 173–174fragility, 176placement, 176Septa, 218b–223bShallow palatebisecting-angle technique compensation, 208lm placement problem, 208Shells, 7Shielding, 56, 67requirements, 67–68Short scale, 26Short-scale contrast, 26Short-scale contrast images, 26Short-term eects. see Acute eectsSialograph, outline, 211fSialography, technique, 211Sialoliths, 271–272Sievert (Sv), 47Sight developmenttechniques, usage, 129time-temperature development, contrast, 129Signal intensity, 191Silicates, 241Silver, 131retrievalsources, 131unit, 131fSilver bromide, 37crystals, size (impact), 37Silver cones, usage, 226fSilver halidecrystals, size, 37emulsion, 37energizing, x-ray beam (impact), 126–127Sine wave, 15fSingle-lm mounts, 214–215, 214fSinus septum, images, 220f–221fSinuses, posteroanterior view (Waters’ view), 163example, 163fimage, 229fSize #0 pediatric lm, 83fSkiagraphs, 3Skindose, 48impact, 51reddening (erythema), 51Skull pathologic conditions, detection, 162Slit beam, 140collimator, 141fSLOB (same lingual, opposite buccal) rule, 206–207Slow lms, 37Small-quantity generators, 130–131“Smile” appearance, 216fSnap-a-Ray, usage, 210Soft tissueimpaction, 260fradiograph, 169viewing, 186window, 187example, 188fSolution levels, 130fSolution strengthchecking, density comparison of, 196festimation of, 194–195Somatic eects, 49Species, evolution, 49Spee, curve of, 216fSpeed (sensitivity), 37–38Sperm, radiosensitivity, 52Spinal column, superimposition, 150fSprays, usage, 205Stained lms, 134Stained radiographs, 135fStandard of care, 276State regulations, 275Static electricity, 149Static marks, 136, 136fexamples, 149fStatute of limitations, 278Step-down transformer, 16Step-up transformer, 16Step wedge, 194–195, 196fSterilization, 73denition, 71microorganisms, absence, 73Stochastic eects, 49Stop bath, 128Storage phosphor, 182, 183fStorage phosphor sensor (PSP), image production, 174Styloid ligament, calcied, 228fStyloid process, 226Styrofoam bite blocks, 89Subgingival calculi, 243, 243fSubmandibular ductradiopaque salivary stone, occlusal radiograph, 272fsialograph, 211fSubmandibular fossaimages, 223f–224fpresence, 218b–223bradiograph, 223fSubmandibular gland, sialograph, 211fSubmentovertex (SMV) projection, 163–164, 167examples, 164f, 168fusage, 163–164, 167Superimposition, absence, 86–87Supernumerary premolar, occlusal view, 261fSupernumerary roots, 261fSupernumerary teeth (hyperdontia), 261Supragingival calculi, 243, 243fSynthetic restorationmetallic pins, 225fradiopaque bases, 242f 310 IndexTTactile stimuli, 204Target, 8heat production, 8Target-receptor distance. see Focal-lm distanceTaurodontia, 263, 263fTeethabsence, 261development, 257–258developmental conditions, recognition, 257developmental disturbances of, 257–266eruption, 258fractures, 269–270germ, 257fimpaction, 258–261malposition, 262radiographic anatomy, 217roots, enamel (attachment), 262transposition, 262ftumor envelopment, radiograph, 269fTemporomandibular joint (TMJ)ankylosis, 158arthrography, 211farticular disc, viewing, 169coronal view, 167fCT axial view, 169fCT coronal view, 169fCT sagittal view, 170fimage, 229fmagnetic resonance images, 170f, 191fmodied panoramic view, 168fpanoramic view, 168fpantomography, 146fradiograph, 166–171sagittal view, 167ftomogram, 141ftomographic view, 169ftranscranial projection, 166Test lm, insertion of, 196fermal stimulation, second premolar sensitivity, 251fermionic emission eect, 8ermometerdeveloper tank suspension, 126usage, 126ermostatic valve, intake control, 124in image, 130ird molar impaction, panoramic radiograph, 233fird molar problems, 207–20813-lm edentulous survey, 84fompson scatter, 45ree Mile Island, nuclear accident, 44–45reshold erythema dose (TED), 51yroid, 51area, x-ray exposure, 52collars, 59draping, 87inclusion, 59fdose, 48radiation, reduction, 59Time-temperature, development, sight development (contrast), 129Timeraccuracy, checks on, 194usage, 126Timing device, 57Tissuedensity, distinction, 187ionizing radiation, chemical changes, 45radiation eect, 50bmechanisms, 45sensitivity, 50–52volume, exposure, 57example, 60fx-ray photon, interaction, 45Tomogram, production, 140–141Tomographyprinciple, 141fradiographic technique, 140Tongue position, 143example, 152f“Tongue tied”, 208Topographic mandibular occlusal projection, 117fTopographic occlusal projection, 115Topographic projections, 115angulation of, 115Tori, lm placement problem, 208–209Torn emulsion, 135, 135fTorus mandibularis, 218b–223bTorus palatinusbony growth, 218b–223bproblem, absence, 208–209Total body exposure, 48approximation, 50–51illustration, 48fTotal body radiation, dierentiation, 48Total tissue volume, FFD (relationship), 59–60Trabeculae, 217Trabecular bone pattern, 270fTracing, anatomic landmarks, 147fTranscranial projection, 166positioning board (angling board), usage, 167Transcranial temporomandibular joint projection, 166–167example, 168fTransformer, 16Transposed teeth, 262, 262fTraumatic injuries, 269–270Triangulation, 244–245, 245fTrifurcation bone loss, 246fTrismus, 158lm placement problem, 209–210Trough, 4Tube arm, 56–58Tube focal (target) area, size, 28Tube headdrift, 56x-ray beam placement, 56finfection control, 71–72leakage, 56plastic bag, 73fstability, 194Tube shift, 206–207Tuberosity pad, 218b–223bTumors, 268, 269fTungsten lament, 8Turbinate, 218b–223bTwo-operator technique, 75fUUltrasonic radiation, 6Ultrasound, 6Umbra, 28Underdeveloped lm, 133, 133fUnderexposed radiograph, 101fUnderexposure, 99–100Underpenetration, 26Undiluted mouthwash, anesthetic eect, 205Unexposed lm, in storage, 197Unilateral lesion, 233Universal precautions, 71Unmodied scatter, 45Unprocessed lm, in storage, 197Upper anterior teeth, blurring/widening, 150fUpper rst molar, trifurcation bone loss, 246fU.S. population, annual radiation exposure, 51tUseful beam, 21, 55VVaccination, 77Vertical angulation, 90–91low palatal vault correction, 208ftubehead (arrow direction), 90fVertical bitewings, 81, 95example, 96fusage, 95Vertical bone loss, 245fVictor x-ray corporation, 2, 4Viewbox, 215usage, 32–33, 32fViewing conditions, 32–33Viewing safelight, 124Visible image, 123Vision impairment, 202Vitality testing, 232Voltage, 15–16V-shaped radiopaque anterior nasal spine, 218b–223bWWalkho, Otto, 1–2, 3fWall-mounted lm-holding device, casette (usage), 160fWaste solids, 130Waste types, 130Tube head (Continued) 311IndexWater, x-ray photon separation, 46Water bath, thermostatic control, 125Waters’ view, 163example, 163fposteroanterior projection, variation, 163Wavelength, 4, 5fWeapon of mass destruction (WMD), 44–45Wet reading, 128–129Wheelchair access, 200–201White light, impact, 124Whole body radiation, maximum permissible dose, 65Window, usage, 187Woert, Frank Van, 2, 4XXCP, 89XCP Beam Alignment System, 22XCP-ORA, 58fX-ray beams, 18–22, 19falignment, 194attenuation, 45bisecting method, 59fcentral ray, 31–32collimation, 21f–22f, 22description, HVL (usage), 46dierential absorption, 20direction, 84–85ltration, 21–22, 21fhalf-value layer, 20, 20fhorizontal angulation, 100fintensity, 21paralleling method, 59fpenetration data, computer collection, 187placement, 56fspectrum, 21fX-ray lmcharacteristic, 37composition, 37development, 127ffog, occurrence, 38processing, 129raised dot on, 215fsensitivity, 123–124X-ray machinecalibration, 55disinfection, 73ffederal regulations, 275federal/state regulations, 66movement, 28usage, 172X-ray photonsdierential absorption (density), 46interaction, absence, 45tissue interaction, 45X-ray processing solution euent, waste, 130X-ray production, 9–11, 10f–11fX-rays, 4absorption, impact, 45American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology position paper, 188anode, 28bremsstrahlung, 11–12characteristic, 11–12direct eects, 46electromagnetic spectrum and, 4–7, 5fequipment, 56–59exposure, 57fgamma rays, overlap, 5generation, understanding, 6history of, 1–4image production, ability, 6indirect eects, 46interaction, 45–46observations, 6packet, components, 35properties of, 6quality, 19–20, 19fquantity, 20shield, 67fterm, usage, 214tissue penetration, 6understanding, 6unit, 41, 159, 173usage, demonstration, 3viewbox, 124X-ray tubes, 8, 8factual focal area, 29fcomponents of, 9feective focal area, 29fheads, types, 30fhigh voltage in, 8position, 30target, 8ZZero exposure, achievability, 66Zygoma, 218b–223bZygomatic arch, 218b–223b, 220ffractures (detection), submentovertex projection (usage), 163–164radiopaque image, bisecting technique, 86Zygomatic process, 220fX-ray beams (Continued) X-rays (Continued) This page intentionally left blank

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