Problem Solving Diagrams










Atlas of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, First Edition. Bernard Koong.
© 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published 2017 by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
1
1.1 Opaque andlargely opaque conditions
related tothejaws
For conditions affecting the temporomandibular joint (TMJ),
nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, upper airway morphology, skull
base and cervical spine, please refer to the dedicated chapters.
On plain films, including panoramic and cephalometric
radiographs, soft tissue calcifications may be projected over
thejaws (see Chapter16).
Common conditions
Reactive sclerosis related to a periapical inflammatory lesion
(see section 5.1)
Bone island (see section 7.4)
Exostoses (see section 7.3)
Torus palatinus (see section 7.1)
Torus mandibularis (see section 7.2)
Ectopic teeth (see section 3.4)
Chronic pericoronitis (see section 5.3)
Supernumerary teeth (see section 3.1)
Cemento‐osseous dysplasia including periapical osseous
dysplasia (see section 9.2)
Pulp stones (see section 3.21)
Hypercementosis (see section 3.22)
Odontoma (see section 10.3)
Dens invaginatus (see section 3.11)
Fibrous dysplasia (see section 9.1)
Enamel pearl (see section 3.9)
Talon cusp (see section 3.10)
Less common conditions
Osteoma (see section 10.10)
Malignant lesions including metastatic disease (see sections
11.1–11.3)
Chronic osteomyelitis (see section 5.4)
Ossifying fibroma (see section 9.3)
Cementoblastoma (see section 10.9)
Osteoblastoma (see section 10.14)
Osteoid osteoma (see section 10.15)
Paget disease of bone (see section 13.5)
Osteopetrosis (see section 15.2)
CHAPTER 1
Problem Solving Diagrams
Supernumerar
y
teeth
Ectopic teeth
Enamel pearl
Talon cusp
Dens
invaginatus
Chronic
pericoronitis
Chronic
osteomyelitis
Torus palatinus
(a)
(b)
Torus mandibularis
Cementoblastoma
Osteoma
Cemento-osseous
dysplasia
Enamel pearl
Pulp stones
Hypercementosis
Reactive sclerosis related to a
periapical inflammatory lesion
Figure1.1 (a) Representation of the jaws and teeth and (b) larger
representation of the fully erupted tooth. Conditions that have a
predilection for certain regions ofthejaws and teeth are shown. Note:
(1)These lesions are not necessarily more common thanother conditions.
See the text for lists of common and less common conditions. (2) Most of
these lesions also occur elsewhere within the jaws. (3)Thepointers identify
a region, not a specific site.

2 Atlas of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology
1.2 Lucent lesions ofthejaws
For conditions affecting the TMJ, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses,
upper airway morphology, skull base and cervical spine, please
refer to the dedicated chapters.
Common conditions
Caries (see section 4.1)
Periodontal bone loss (see section 5.2)
Tooth abrasion (see section 4.3)
Periapical inflammatory lesion (see section 5.1)
Root resorption (see sections 4.5–4.6)
Radicular cyst (see section 8.1)
Dentigerous cyst (see section 8.3)
Stafne defect (see section 14.4)
Simple bone cyst (see section 8.9)
Keratocystic odontogenic tumour (see section 8.5)
Nasopalatine duct cyst (see section 8.10)
Residual cyst (see section 8.2)
Cemento‐osseous dysplasia (see section 9.2)
Less common conditions
Osteoradionecrosis (see section 6.1)
Osteonecrosis of the jaws (see section 6.2)
Buccal bifurcation cyst (see section 8.4)
Lateral periodontal cyst (see section 8.7)
Osteomyelitis (see section 5.4)
Malignant lesions including metastatic disease (see sections
11.1–11.3)
Vascular anomalies (see sections 12.1–12.4)
Cleft lip and palate (see section 14.5)
Ameloblastoma (see section 10.1)
Schwannoma (see section 10.13)
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (see section 13.4)
Nasolabial cyst (see section 8.11)
Glandular odontogenic cyst (see section 8.8)
Ameloblastic fibroma (see section 10.4)
Osteomyelitis
Dentigerous
cyst
Buccal bifurcation
cyst
Keratocystic odontogenic tumour
Simple bone cyst
Lateral
periodontal
cyst
Nasopalatin
e
duct cyst
Nasolabial
cyst
Ameloblastic
fibro-odontom
a
Ameloblastic fibroma
Stafne defect
Cleft lip and
palate
Cemento-osseous
dysplasia
(a)
Caries
Abrasion
(b)
Resorption
Periapical inflammatory lesion.
Occasionally presents on the
other surface of the roots
Periodontal bone
loss. Begins at
the alveolar crest
and extends towards
the apex
Radicular cyst
Cemento-osseous
dysplasia
Figure1.2 (a) Representation of the jaws and teeth and (b) larger
representation of the fully erupted tooth. Conditions that have a
predilection for certain regions of thejaws are shown. Note: (1) These
lesions are not necessarily more common than other conditions. Refer to
the text for lists of common and less common conditions. (2) Most of these
lesions also occur elsewhere within the jaws. (3) The pointers identify a
region, not a specific site.

Problem Solving Diagrams 3
1.3 Mixed density lesions ofthejaws
For conditions affecting the TMJ, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses,
upper airway morphology, skull base and cervical spine, please
refer to the dedicated chapters.
Common conditions
Chronic pericoronitis (see section 5.3)
Cemento‐osseous dysplasia (see section 9.2)
Odontoma (see section 10.3)
Fibrous dysplasia (see section 9.1)
Less common conditions
Osteoradionecrosis (see section 6.1)
Osteonecrosis of the jaws (see section 6.2)
Osteomyelitis (see section 5.4)
Ameloblastoma (see section 10.1)
Central giant cell granuloma (see section 13.1)
Odontogenic myxoma (see section 10.8)
Ossifying fibroma (see section 9.3)
Vascular anomalies (see sections 12.1–12.4)
Malignant lesions including metastatic disease (see sections
11.1–11.3)
Aneurysmal bone cyst (see section 13.3)
Ameloblastic fibro‐odontoma (see section 10.5)
Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour (see section 10.6)
Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour (see section 10.7)
Paget disease of bone (see section 13.5)
Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour (Pindborg) (see
section 10.2)
Osteoblastoma (see section 10.14)
Osteoid osteoma (see section 10.15)
Desmoplastic fibroma (see section 10.16)
Cherubism (see section 13.2)
Osteomyelitis
Chronic
pericoronitis
Ameloblastoma
Ameloblastic
fibro-odontoma
Adenomatoid
odontogenic tumour
Calcifying cystic
odontogenic tumour
Odontogenic myxoma
Central giant cell granuloma
Cemento-osseous
dysplasia
Osteoradionecrosis
Osteonecrosis
of the jaws
Figure1.3
Representation of the jaws and teeth. Conditions that have a
predilection for certain regions of thejaws are shown. Note: (1) These
lesions are not necessarily more common than other conditions. Refer to
the text for lists of common and less common conditions. (2) Most of these
lesions also occur elsewhere within the jaws. (3) The pointers identify a
region, not a specific site.

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Atlas of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, First Edition. Bernard Koong. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published 2017 by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.11.1 Opaque andlargely opaque conditions related tothejawsFor conditions affecting the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, upper airway morphology, skull base and cervical spine, please refer to the dedicated chapters.On plain films, including panoramic and cephalometric radiographs, soft tissue calcifications may be projected over thejaws (see Chapter16).Common conditions• Reactive sclerosis related to a periapical inflammatory lesion (see section 5.1)• Bone island (see section 7.4)• Exostoses (see section 7.3)• Torus palatinus (see section 7.1)• Torus mandibularis (see section 7.2)• Ectopic teeth (see section 3.4)• Chronic pericoronitis (see section 5.3)• Supernumerary teeth (see section 3.1)• Cemento‐osseous dysplasia including periapical osseous dysplasia (see section 9.2)• Pulp stones (see section 3.21)• Hypercementosis (see section 3.22)• Odontoma (see section 10.3)• Dens invaginatus (see section 3.11)• Fibrous dysplasia (see section 9.1)• Enamel pearl (see section 3.9)• Talon cusp (see section 3.10)Less common conditions• Osteoma (see section 10.10)• Malignant lesions including metastatic disease (see sections 11.1–11.3)• Chronic osteomyelitis (see section 5.4)• Ossifying fibroma (see section 9.3)• Cementoblastoma (see section 10.9)• Osteoblastoma (see section 10.14)• Osteoid osteoma (see section 10.15)• Paget disease of bone (see section 13.5)• Osteopetrosis (see section 15.2)CHAPTER 1Problem Solving DiagramsSupernumeraryteethEctopic teethEnamel pearlTalon cuspDensinvaginatusChronicpericoronitisChronicosteomyelitisTorus palatinus(a)(b)Torus mandibularisCementoblastomaOsteomaCemento-osseousdysplasiaEnamel pearlPulp stonesHypercementosisReactive sclerosis related to aperiapical inflammatory lesionFigure1.1 (a) Representation of the jaws and teeth and (b) larger representation of the fully erupted tooth. Conditions that have a predilection for certain regions ofthejaws and teeth are shown. Note: (1)These lesions are not necessarily more common thanother conditions. See the text for lists of common and less common conditions. (2) Most of these lesions also occur elsewhere within the jaws. (3)Thepointers identify a region, not a specific site. 2 Atlas of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology1.2 Lucent lesions ofthejawsFor conditions affecting the TMJ, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, upper airway morphology, skull base and cervical spine, please refer to the dedicated chapters.Common conditions• Caries (see section 4.1)• Periodontal bone loss (see section 5.2)• Tooth abrasion (see section 4.3)• Periapical inflammatory lesion (see section 5.1)• Root resorption (see sections 4.5–4.6)• Radicular cyst (see section 8.1)• Dentigerous cyst (see section 8.3)• Stafne defect (see section 14.4)• Simple bone cyst (see section 8.9)• Keratocystic odontogenic tumour (see section 8.5)• Nasopalatine duct cyst (see section 8.10)• Residual cyst (see section 8.2)• Cemento‐osseous dysplasia (see section 9.2)Less common conditions• Osteoradionecrosis (see section 6.1)• Osteonecrosis of the jaws (see section 6.2)• Buccal bifurcation cyst (see section 8.4)• Lateral periodontal cyst (see section 8.7)• Osteomyelitis (see section 5.4)• Malignant lesions including metastatic disease (see sections 11.1–11.3)• Vascular anomalies (see sections 12.1–12.4)• Cleft lip and palate (see section 14.5)• Ameloblastoma (see section 10.1)• Schwannoma (see section 10.13)• Langerhans cell histiocytosis (see section 13.4)• Nasolabial cyst (see section 8.11)• Glandular odontogenic cyst (see section 8.8)• Ameloblastic fibroma (see section 10.4)OsteomyelitisDentigerouscystBuccal bifurcationcystKeratocystic odontogenic tumourSimple bone cystLateralperiodontal cystNasopalatineduct cystNasolabialcystAmeloblastic fibro-odontomaAmeloblastic fibromaStafne defectCleft lip andpalateCemento-osseousdysplasia(a)CariesAbrasion(b)ResorptionPeriapical inflammatory lesion.Occasionally presents on the other surface of the rootsPeriodontal boneloss. Begins atthe alveolar crestand extends towardsthe apexRadicular cystCemento-osseous dysplasiaFigure1.2 (a) Representation of the jaws and teeth and (b) larger representation of the fully erupted tooth. Conditions that have a predilection for certain regions of thejaws are shown. Note: (1) These lesions are not necessarily more common than other conditions. Refer to the text for lists of common and less common conditions. (2) Most of these lesions also occur elsewhere within the jaws. (3) The pointers identify a region, not a specific site. Problem Solving Diagrams 31.3 Mixed density lesions ofthejawsFor conditions affecting the TMJ, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, upper airway morphology, skull base and cervical spine, please refer to the dedicated chapters.Common conditions• Chronic pericoronitis (see section 5.3)• Cemento‐osseous dysplasia (see section 9.2)• Odontoma (see section 10.3)• Fibrous dysplasia (see section 9.1)Less common conditions• Osteoradionecrosis (see section 6.1)• Osteonecrosis of the jaws (see section 6.2)• Osteomyelitis (see section 5.4)• Ameloblastoma (see section 10.1)• Central giant cell granuloma (see section 13.1)• Odontogenic myxoma (see section 10.8)• Ossifying fibroma (see section 9.3)• Vascular anomalies (see sections 12.1–12.4)• Malignant lesions including metastatic disease (see sections 11.1–11.3)• Aneurysmal bone cyst (see section 13.3)• Ameloblastic fibro‐odontoma (see section 10.5)• Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour (see section 10.6)• Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour (see section 10.7)• Paget disease of bone (see section 13.5)• Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour (Pindborg) (see section 10.2)• Osteoblastoma (see section 10.14)• Osteoid osteoma (see section 10.15)• Desmoplastic fibroma (see section 10.16)• Cherubism (see section 13.2)OsteomyelitisChronicpericoronitisAmeloblastomaAmeloblasticfibro-odontomaAdenomatoidodontogenic tumourCalcifying cysticodontogenic tumourOdontogenic myxomaCentral giant cell granulomaCemento-osseous dysplasiaOsteoradionecrosisOsteonecrosisof the jawsFigure1.3 Representation of the jaws and teeth. Conditions that have a predilection for certain regions of thejaws are shown. Note: (1) These lesions are not necessarily more common than other conditions. Refer to the text for lists of common and less common conditions. (2) Most of these lesions also occur elsewhere within the jaws. (3) The pointers identify a region, not a specific site.

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