Radiological Anatomy










Atlas of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, First Edition. Bernard Koong.
© 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published 2017 by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
4
2.1 The panoramic radiograph
CHAPTER 2
Radiological Anatomy
Middle cranial
fossa
Articular
tubercle
Zygomatic
arch
Pterygomaxillary fissure
Anterior rim
of orbital floor
Infraorbital canal
Infraorbital foramen
Hard palate
Ala nasi (soft tissue density)
Nasal columella (soft tissue density)
Nasal septum
Anterior intermaxillary suture
Inferior turbinate
Mental
foramen
Anterior loop
of the mandibular
canal
Mandibular
symphysis
Mental
tubercle
Body of
hyoid bone
Greater cornu of
hyoid bone
Antegonial
notch
Lingual tonsil
Epiglottis
Epiglottic vallecula
Glossopalatal air space
Soft palate
Lobule of external ear
Styloid process
Mastoid process
Superior surface of
soft palate
External auditory meatus
Figure2.1

Radiological Anatomy 5
Superior surface
of inferior
turbinate
Inferior aspect of the orbit
Inferior cortex, zygomatic process of maxilla
Posterior cortex, zygomatic process of maxilla
Posterior wall (cortex) maxillary sinus
Anterior cortex pterygoid process of sphenoid
Pterygoid process of sphenoid
Mandibular condylar head
Mandibular condylar neck
Mandibular notch
Mandibular coronoid process
Mandibular foramen
Anterior border (lateral) mandibular ramus
Anterior border (medial) mandibular ramus
Mandibular canal
Angle of mandible
Posterior border of mandibular ramus
Ghost image of the inferior
border of the contralateral
body of the mandible
Hypodense appearance
related to the
submandibular fossa
Inferior cortex
body of the
mandible
Figure2.1 (Continued)

6 Atlas of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology
Glossopalatal
air space
Soft palate
Lobule of
external ear
Superior surface of
soft palate
Mandibular
symphysis
Body of
hyoid bone
Greater cornu of
hyoid bone
Antegonial
notch
Middle cranial fossa
Articular
tubercle
Zygomaticotemporal
suture
Pterygomaxillary
fissure
Anterior rim of
orbital floor
Infraorbital
canal
Infraorbital
foramen
Hard palate
Ala nasi (soft tissue density)
Nasal columella (soft tissue density)
Nasal septum
Anterior intermaxillary suture
Zygomatic arch;
temporal process
zygoma
Zygomatic arch;
zygomatic process temporal bone
Dorsal surface
of the tongue
Figure2.2

Radiological Anatomy 7
Ghost image of the inferior border
of the contralateral body of the mandible
Hypodense appearance
related to the submandibular fossa
Inferior cortex body
of the mandible
Mental
foramen
Superior surface of
inferior turbinate
Inferior aspect of the orbit
Inferior cortex, zygomatic process of maxilla
Posterior cortex, zygomatic process of maxilla
Posterior wall (cortex) maxillary sinus
Anterior cortex pterygoid process of sphenoid
Pterygoid process of sphenoid
Mastoid air cells
Mandibular condylar neck
Mandibular notch
Mandibular coronoid process
Mandibular foramen
Anterior border (lateral)
mandibular ramus
Anterior border (medial)
mandibular ramus
Mandibular canal
Angle of mandible
Posterior border of
mandibular ramus
External oblique ridge
Mandibular condylar head
Figure2.2 (Continued)

8 Atlas of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology
2.2 Identification ofteeth–FDI (Fédération Dentaire Internationale)
World Dental Federation notation
18
17
16
15 14
13 12
11 21 22 23 24
25
26
27
28
48
47
46
45
44
43
42 41 31 32
33 34
35
36
37
38
Figure2.3
16
15 14
13
12
11 21
22
23
24
25 26
46
45
44
43
42 41 31 32
33
34
35
36
17 27
47
37
55 54
53
52
51 61
62
63 64
65
85
84
83
82
81 71
72
73
74 75
Figure2.4

Radiological Anatomy 9
16
15
14
13
12
11 21
22
23
24
25
26
46
45
44 43
42
41
31
32
33
34
35
36
17 27
47
37
55
53 63
64 65
85
73
74
75
48
38
18
28
Figure2.5
18 17 16 15 13 12 11 21 22 23 25 26 27
46 45 43 41
31
32
33
35 36 37
42
Figure2.6

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Atlas of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, First Edition. Bernard Koong. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published 2017 by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.42.1 The panoramic radiographCHAPTER 2Radiological AnatomyMiddle cranialfossaArticulartubercleZygomaticarchPterygomaxillary fissureAnterior rimof orbital floorInfraorbital canalInfraorbital foramenHard palateAla nasi (soft tissue density)Nasal columella (soft tissue density)Nasal septumAnterior intermaxillary sutureInferior turbinateMentalforamenAnterior loopof the mandibularcanalMandibularsymphysisMentaltubercleBody ofhyoid boneGreater cornu ofhyoid boneAntegonialnotchLingual tonsilEpiglottisEpiglottic valleculaGlossopalatal air spaceSoft palateLobule of external earStyloid processMastoid processSuperior surface ofsoft palateExternal auditory meatusFigure2.1 Radiological Anatomy 5Superior surfaceof inferior turbinateInferior aspect of the orbitInferior cortex, zygomatic process of maxillaPosterior cortex, zygomatic process of maxillaPosterior wall (cortex) maxillary sinusAnterior cortex pterygoid process of sphenoidPterygoid process of sphenoidMandibular condylar headMandibular condylar neckMandibular notchMandibular coronoid processMandibular foramenAnterior border (lateral) mandibular ramusAnterior border (medial) mandibular ramusMandibular canalAngle of mandiblePosterior border of mandibular ramusGhost image of the inferiorborder of the contralateralbody of the mandibleHypodense appearancerelated to the submandibular fossaInferior cortexbody of the mandibleFigure2.1 (Continued) 6 Atlas of Oral and Maxillofacial RadiologyGlossopalatalair spaceSoft palateLobule ofexternal earSuperior surface ofsoft palateMandibularsymphysisBody ofhyoid boneGreater cornu ofhyoid boneAntegonialnotchMiddle cranial fossaArticulartubercleZygomaticotemporalsuturePterygomaxillaryfissureAnterior rim oforbital floorInfraorbitalcanalInfraorbitalforamenHard palateAla nasi (soft tissue density)Nasal columella (soft tissue density)Nasal septumAnterior intermaxillary sutureZygomatic arch;temporal processzygomaZygomatic arch;zygomatic process temporal boneDorsal surfaceof the tongueFigure2.2 Radiological Anatomy 7Ghost image of the inferior borderof the contralateral body of the mandibleHypodense appearancerelated to the submandibular fossaInferior cortex bodyof the mandibleMentalforamenSuperior surface ofinferior turbinateInferior aspect of the orbitInferior cortex, zygomatic process of maxillaPosterior cortex, zygomatic process of maxillaPosterior wall (cortex) maxillary sinusAnterior cortex pterygoid process of sphenoidPterygoid process of sphenoidMastoid air cellsMandibular condylar neckMandibular notchMandibular coronoid processMandibular foramenAnterior border (lateral)mandibular ramusAnterior border (medial)mandibular ramusMandibular canalAngle of mandiblePosterior border ofmandibular ramusExternal oblique ridgeMandibular condylar headFigure2.2 (Continued) 8 Atlas of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology2.2 Identification ofteeth–FDI (Fédération Dentaire Internationale) World Dental Federation notation18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Figure2.3 16 15 14 13 12 11 21 22 23 24 25 26 46 45 44 43 42 41 31 32 33 34 35 36 17 27 47 37 55 54 53 52 51 61 62 63 64 65 85 84 83 82 81 71 72 73 74 75 Figure2.4 Radiological Anatomy 916 15 14 13 12 11 21 22 23 24 25 26 46 45 44 43 42 41 31 32 33 34 35 36 17 27 47 37 55 53 63 64 65 85 73 74 75 48 38 18 28 Figure2.5 18 17 16 15 13 12 11 21 22 23 25 26 27 46 45 43 41 31 32 33 35 36 37 42 Figure2.6 10 Atlas of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 48 47 45 44 43 42 31 32 33 34 35 37 41 Figure2.7 Radiological Anatomy 112.3 Cone beam computed tomographyAxialFrontal sinusCrista galliSquamoustemporal boneSphenosquamosalsutureFigure2.8 Ethmoid aircellsPituitaryfossa (sella)Bony nasal septum (perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone)Dorsum sellaOptic canalAnterior clinoidprocessCribriform plateOlfactory fossaFigure2.9 12 Atlas of Oral and Maxillofacial RadiologySuperior nasal cavityInternal auditory canalLeft sphenoid sinusMastoid air cellsFacial nerve canal(labyrinth segment)Lamina papyraceaFigure2.10 Bony nasal septumInternal auditory canalLeft sphenoid sinusMastoidal air cellsMiddle ear ossicles;head of malleus and incusSphenozygomatic sutureSuperior nasal cavityInferior orbital fissureCochleaLateral semicircular canalSphenosquamosal sutureFacial nerve canal(tympanic segment)Figure2.11 Radiological Anatomy 13Foramen rotundum Bony nasal septumPterygopalatine fossaLeft sphenoid sinusCarotid canalSuperior nasal cavityMaxillary sinusSuperior turbinateMiddle turbinatePterygomaxillaryfissureFigure2.12 Maxillary sinusVidian (pterygoid) canalGlenoid fossaJugular fossaInfraorbital canalFossa of lacrimal sac Pterygomaxillary fissureForamen lacerumExternal auditory canalCarotid canalPterygopalatine fossaPharyngeal(palatovaginal) canalFigure2.13 14 Atlas of Oral and Maxillofacial RadiologyMandibular condylar headJugular fossaArticular eminenceof the temporal bonePterygopalatine fossaInfraorbital canalNasolacrimal ductZygomaZygomaticotemporalsutureZygomatic processof the temporal boneForamen ovaleForamen spinosumFigure2.14 Mandibular condylar headNasolacrimal ductPterygoid processof sphenoid boneJugular fossaCarotid canalPterygomaxillary fissureInfraorbital canalFigure2.15 Radiological Anatomy 15Inferior meatusInferior turbinateLateral pterygoidplate (sphenoid)Hypoglossal canalMandibular condyleNasopharyngealtonsil (adenoid)Medial pterygoidplate (sphenoid)Coronoid processof mandibleFigure2.16 Mandibular ramusMastoid tipBase of occipital condyleFossa of RosenmüllerTorus tubariusGreater palatine foramenFigure2.17 16 Atlas of Oral and Maxillofacial RadiologyIncisive foramenMandibular foramenC2 odontoid processC1 lateral massC1 posterior archC1 transverse processMaxillary alveolarprocessFigure2.18 Mandibular canalC2 bodyC2 spinous process(bifid variant)C2/C3 facet articulationPalatine (faucial) tonsilMandibular canalExternal oblique ridgeFigure2.19 Radiological Anatomy 17Mental foramenEpiglottisC3 bodyC3/C4 jointGreater cornuhyoid boneMandibular canalFigure2.20 Body of hyoid boneC4 transverseforamenC4 bodyC4 laminaAnterior mandibleFigure2.21 18 Atlas of Oral and Maxillofacial RadiologySagittalMiddle cranial fossaZygomaGlenoid fossaMandibular condyleMastoid air cellsFigure2.22 Coronoid processof mandibleMiddle ear ossiclesFacial nerve canal(mastoid segment)Stylomastoid foramenMandibular foramenAngle of mandibleFigure2.23 Radiological Anatomy 19Middlecranial fossaMiddle earArticular eminenceMandibularforamenMandibularcanalMandibularcondylar headZygomaFigure2.24 Middle cranial fossaForamen ovaleInfraorbital canalCarotid canalLateral pterygoidplate of sphenoidMandibular canalFigure2.25 20 Atlas of Oral and Maxillofacial RadiologyForamen rotundumOrbitInferior orbitalfissurePterygopalatinefossaMaxillary alveolarprocessMandibular bodyTorus tubariusAtlanto-occipital jointTransverse foraminaC2/C4Figure2.26 Vidian (pterygoid) canal Pterygopalatine fossaNasolacrimal ductGreater palatine canalLesser palatine canalPalatine (faucial) tonsilFigure2.27 Radiological Anatomy 21Anterior clinoid processSphenoid sinusOptic canalAnterior ethmoidair cellsGreater palatine canalInferior turbinatePalatine (faucial) tonsilFigure2.28 Anterior ethmoidal air cellsPosterior ethmoidal air cellsDorsum sellaFrontal sinusFrontal recessAgger nasi cellHiatus semilunarisMiddle turbinateInferior turbinateSphenoid sinusEthmoid bullaAdenoid tonsilHard palateSoft palateMedial aspect ofthe palatine (faucial) tonsilFigure2.29 22 Atlas of Oral and Maxillofacial RadiologyCoronalAnterior border offoramen magnumC1 anterior archC2 odontoid pegUvulaNasal boneInferior turbinateIncisive canalLingual canals at themandibular symphysisEpiglottisValleculaHyoid boneFigure2.30 Agger nasi cellNasal septumFrontal sinusMaxillary sinusInferior turbinateIncisive canalFigure2.31 Radiological Anatomy 23Cribriform plateCrista galliOlfactory recess ofthe nasal cavityLamina papyraceaMaxillary sinusInferior turbinateFrontal sinus drainageAgger nasi cellMiddle turbinateNasolacrimal ductFigure2.32 Fovea ethmoidalisCrista galliAnterior ethmoidair cellsLamina papyraceaUncinate processInfraorbital canalInferior turbinateEthmoid bullaConcha bullosaInfundibulumFigure2.33 24 Atlas of Oral and Maxillofacial RadiologyZygoma Mental foramenFigure2.34 Ethmoid air cellsSphenoethmoidal recessInferior orbital fissurePterygopalatine fossaMiddle turbinateInferior turbinateExternal oblique ridgeSphenopalatine foramenSphenoid sinusGreater palatine canalLesser palatine canalMandibular canalFigure2.35 Radiological Anatomy 25Optic canalForamen rotundumVidian canalMandibular canalAnterior clinoid processSphenoid sinusLateral pterygoid plateMedial pterygoid plateHamulusFigure2.36 Sphenoid sinusForamen ovaleTorus tubariusMandibular foramenVidian canalAdenoid tonsilLingulaFigure2.37 26 Atlas of Oral and Maxillofacial RadiologyMastoid air cellsCarotid canalMandibularcondylar headHyoid boneCondylar neckPalatine (faucial)tonsilEpiglottisFigure2.39 SphenoidForamen lacerumMandibular condyleForamen spinosumFigure2.38 Radiological Anatomy 27MalleusCochleaCarotid canalC2 odontoidprocessC1/C2 facetarticulationExternal auditorycanalC1 transverseforamenC1 lateral massFigure2.40 Internal auditory canalSuperiorsemicircular canalLateralsemicircular canalOval windowAtlanto-occipital jointC2 odontoid processC1/C2 facetarticulationMastoid air cellsExternal auditory canalC1 transverse foramenFigure2.41

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