Article Title and Bibliographic Information
Saliva in the Diagnosis of COVID-19: A Review and New Research Directions. Fernandes LL, Pacheco VB, Borges L et al. Journal of Dental Research. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022034520960070 .
Source of Funding
Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein and Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul , São Paulo, Brazil. The authors have no actual or potential conflicts of interest.
Type of Study/Design
With no date or language restrictions, an electronic search to evaluate the available data regarding the use of saliva as a reliable tool for coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis and monitoring was conducted on July 22, 2020, using the following databases: (1) PubMed, (2) Embase, (3) LILACS, (4) Scopus, and (5) Web of Science, and the references of the related articles were cross-checked. The review included case reports and series, case–control, cross-sectional, and prospective observational studies.
Key Study Factor
The reliability of saliva as a testing sample for the diagnosis of COVID-19 as compared with gold standard samples (nasopharynx and throat swabs) was evaluated in 28 studies conducted in 10 different countries. A total of 2095 patients were included in this review. The most used SARS-CoV-2 detection test in saliva samples was the RT-qPCR. Drooled saliva, coughed-out saliva, oral swabs, glandular secretion, posterior oropharyngeal saliva, and throat saliva were used as specimens.
Main Outcome Measure
Sensitivity and specificity of reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) using saliva as samples in detecting the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) were investigated.