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Saliva May Be Considered as Reliable Tool for Diagnosis of COVID-19 When Compared With Nasopharynx or Throat Swabs

Saliva May Be Considered as Reliable Tool for Diagnosis of COVID-19 When Compared With Nasopharynx or Throat Swabs



Saliva May Be Considered as Reliable Tool for Diagnosis of COVID-19 When Compared With Nasopharynx or Throat Swabs




Journal of Evidence-Based Dental Practice, 2021-03-01, Volume 21, Issue 1, Article 101530, Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc.


Article Title and Bibliographic Information

Saliva in the Diagnosis of COVID-19: A Review and New Research Directions. Fernandes LL, Pacheco VB, Borges L et al. Journal of Dental Research. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022034520960070 .

Source of Funding

Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein and Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul , São Paulo, Brazil. The authors have no actual or potential conflicts of interest.

Type of Study/Design

Systematic review.

SORT SCORE
A B C D
SORT, Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE
1 2 3
See page 101566 for complete details regarding SORT and LEVEL OF EVIDENCE grading system.


Summary


Selection Criteria

With no date or language restrictions, an electronic search to evaluate the available data regarding the use of saliva as a reliable tool for coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis and monitoring was conducted on July 22, 2020, using the following databases: (1) PubMed, (2) Embase, (3) LILACS, (4) Scopus, and (5) Web of Science, and the references of the related articles were cross-checked. The review included case reports and series, case–control, cross-sectional, and prospective observational studies.


Key Study Factor

The reliability of saliva as a testing sample for the diagnosis of COVID-19 as compared with gold standard samples (nasopharynx and throat swabs) was evaluated in 28 studies conducted in 10 different countries. A total of 2095 patients were included in this review. The most used SARS-CoV-2 detection test in saliva samples was the RT-qPCR. Drooled saliva, coughed-out saliva, oral swabs, glandular secretion, posterior oropharyngeal saliva, and throat saliva were used as specimens.


Main Outcome Measure

Sensitivity and specificity of reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) using saliva as samples in detecting the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) were investigated.


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