Waxing Mandibular Posterior Teeth in Occlusion












57
Waxing Mandibular
Posterior Teeth in
Occlusion
4
Waxing Armamentarium (Fig 4-1)
Fig 4-1 Waxing armamentarium.
Torch or Bunsen burner
Lighter/matches
Mounted casts on the articulator
Sticky wax (Dentsply Trubyte no. 77310)
Multicolored wax sticks (Whip Mix margin
wax no. 6 [no. 10014])
Wax addition and carving instruments
Shimstock occlusal strips (Benco Dental
no. 1195-995)
Slaycris Slik Die Lubricant (Keystone
Industries no. 1287105)
Powdered wax (Almore International no.
42700) for marking the occlusal contacts
Red sable brush (Bualo Dental no. 6 [no.
06466]; use for powdered wax)
Large double end pattern painter (use
brown sable hairs for lubricant and sti
end for brushing excess wax; Whip Mix
no. 11673)
Nylon stockings
Sharp pencil

Waxing Mandibular Posterior Teeth in Occlusion
58
4
Waxing Steps for Teeth Nos. 29 and 30
1. Mark the locations of anatomical landmarks: Cusp tips, ridges, and central fossae.
Locate the buccal cusp tips. Start by marking the bucco-occlusal line on the neighboring
teeth nos. 28 and 31. Note the buccal outline of teeth nos. 29 and 31. The buccal cusp tips of
these teeth should fall on the bucco-occlusal line opposite the greatest contour on the buccal
surface (Fig 4-2a). Mark the mesial and distal cusp ridges to join the bucco-occlusal lines of
all posterior teeth (Fig 4-2b).
Fig 4-2a Buccal cusp tip locations.
Fig 4-3a Lingual cusp tip locations.
Fig 4-4a Central groove line.
Fig 4-2b Bucco-occlusal line.
Fig 4-3b Linguo-occlusal line.
Fig 4-4b Marginal ridges and buccal and lingual cusp
ridges.
Locate the lingual cusp tips. Mark the location of lingual cusp tips in the same manner using
the linguo-occlusal line and the greatest contour on the lingual surface as a guide (Fig 4-3a),
then mark the mesial and distal cusp ridges to join the linguo-occlusal lines of all posterior
teeth (Fig 4-3b).
Locate the central groove and marginal, buccal, and lingual ridges. Draw the central groove using
the central grooves of the adjacent teeth as a guide (Fig 4-4a), then mark the central fossae loca-
tion of teeth nos. 29 and 30, marginal ridges, and buccal and lingual cusp ridges of all cusps (Fig
4-4b). Note that premolars lack a central fossa, but marking the center of the occlusal surface
helps determine the position where the triangular ridges terminate during waxing.

Waxing Steps for Teeth Nos. 29 and 30
59
2. Prepare the opposing cast.
Apply lubricant to the opposing occlusal surfaces of teeth nos. 3 and 4 (Fig 4-5a).
Mark with a pencil the contact locations on these teeth. These are the palatal cusp tips, the
highest convexity of the mesial marginal ridges, and the central fossa of tooth no. 3 (Fig 4-5b).
Fig 4-5a Lubricant application with brown sable hairs
of double-ended brush.
Fig 4-5b Contact points on the maxillary right rst
molar and second premolar.
Fig 4-6b Thinning and spreading the sticky wax with
the spatula.
Fig 4-6a Applying the sticky wax with the PKT1 in-
strument.
3. Wax the contact points: Central fossa, distal marginal ridges, and buccal cusps tips.
Apply sticky wax. Start the wax-up by applying a thin even layer of sticky wax to the occlusal
surfaces to ensure that the wax-up will not separate from the cast. The sticky wax can be
applied with the PKT1 instrument and then spread on the surface using the heated at end of
a small spatula (Fig 4-6).

Waxing Mandibular Posterior Teeth in Occlusion
60
4
Wax the contacts at the central fossa and marginal ridges. All the contacting areas are built using the
blue wax sticks for better visualization of the contacts. Apply blue wax in the location of the central
fossa of tooth no. 30, then close the articulator when the wax is still warm to ensure that your wax
cone achieves contact with the opposing tooth. The top of the wax cone should become attened as
it contacts the opposing tooth. Repeat the same procedure to wax the distal marginal ridge contact
areas (Figs 4-7a and 4-7b). With the articulator closed, you should ensure that the blue wax cones are
contacting the proper locations on the opposing teeth, which is best visualized from a lingual view
(Fig 4-7c), and that the second molars are still holding shimstock. If the second molars do not hold
shimstock tightly this means that the wax cones are high. This can be resolved by reheating the blue
cones and closing the articulator when the wax is still soft.
Fig 4-7a Blue wax cones are added one at a time followed by closing the articulator to ensure occlu-
sal contact.
Fig 4-7b Blue cones represent contact locations at the central fossa and distal marginal ridges.
Fig 4-7c Distal marginal ridge of tooth no. 29 contacts lingual cusp tip of tooth
no. 4. Central fossa of tooth no. 30 contacts mesiolingual cusp tip of tooth no. 3.
Distal marginal ridge of tooth no. 30 contacts distolingual cusp tip of tooth no. 3.

Waxing Steps for Teeth Nos. 29 and 30
61
4. Wax the buccal and lingual cusp ridges of the buccal cusps.
Wax the buccal cusp ridges of the buccal cusps. Use red wax sticks for the buccal and lingual
cusp ridges. Start by adding wax cones buccal to the blue wax cones using the existing tooth
structure as guidance. Avoid adding red wax on top of the blue wax cones, where the contacts
were established (Fig 4-9a). Carve the excess wax with the Hollenback carver (Figs 4-9b and
4-9c); wax ecks can be brushed o with the sti end of the double-ended brush or with the
airway syringe. Check that the shimstock still holds at the second molars after adding each
ridge so that high spots can be eliminated (Fig 4-9d).
Fig 4-8 Blue wax cones are added to create the buccal cusp tips. Note the attened end of the cones.
Fig 4-9b Carving the excess wax with the Hollenback
carver.
Fig 4-9a Adding red wax to create the buccal cusp
ridges.
Fig 4-9c Completed buccal cusp ridges of the buccal
cusps.
Fig 4-9d Checking that shimstock still holds after
wax addition.
Wax the buccal cusp tips. Create the buccal cusp tip contact points by applying blue wax at the
marked location of the cusp tips in the form of cones. These wax cones will be higher than the
previous cones created. The cones are added one at a time, each time closing the articulator to
achieve contact, resulting in a cone with a attened end. Each cone can be created by sequential
addition if the thinner end of the PKT1 instrument is used, or in one addition with the thicker end
of the PKT1 instrument (Fig 4-8).

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57Waxing Mandibular Posterior Teeth in Occlusion4Waxing Armamentarium (Fig 4-1)Fig 4-1 Waxing armamentarium.• Torch or Bunsen burner• Lighter/matches• Mounted casts on the articulator• Sticky wax (Dentsply Trubyte no. 77310)• Multicolored wax sticks (Whip Mix margin wax no. 6 [no. 10014])• Wax addition and carving instruments• Shimstock occlusal strips (Benco Dental no. 1195-995)• Slaycris Slik Die Lubricant (Keystone Industries no. 1287105)• Powdered wax (Almore International no. 42700) for marking the occlusal contacts• Red sable brush (Bualo Dental no. 6 [no. 06466]; use for powdered wax)• Large double end pattern painter (use brown sable hairs for lubricant and sti end for brushing excess wax; Whip Mix no. 11673)• Nylon stockings• Sharp pencil Waxing Mandibular Posterior Teeth in Occlusion584Waxing Steps for Teeth Nos. 29 and 301. Mark the locations of anatomical landmarks: Cusp tips, ridges, and central fossae.• Locate the buccal cusp tips. Start by marking the bucco-occlusal line on the neighboring teeth nos. 28 and 31. Note the buccal outline of teeth nos. 29 and 31. The buccal cusp tips of these teeth should fall on the bucco-occlusal line opposite the greatest contour on the buccal surface (Fig 4-2a). Mark the mesial and distal cusp ridges to join the bucco-occlusal lines of all posterior teeth (Fig 4-2b).Fig 4-2a Buccal cusp tip locations.Fig 4-3a Lingual cusp tip locations.Fig 4-4a Central groove line.Fig 4-2b Bucco-occlusal line.Fig 4-3b Linguo-occlusal line.Fig 4-4b Marginal ridges and buccal and lingual cusp ridges.• Locate the lingual cusp tips. Mark the location of lingual cusp tips in the same manner using the linguo-occlusal line and the greatest contour on the lingual surface as a guide (Fig 4-3a), then mark the mesial and distal cusp ridges to join the linguo-occlusal lines of all posterior teeth (Fig 4-3b).• Locate the central groove and marginal, buccal, and lingual ridges. Draw the central groove using the central grooves of the adjacent teeth as a guide (Fig 4-4a), then mark the central fossae loca-tion of teeth nos. 29 and 30, marginal ridges, and buccal and lingual cusp ridges of all cusps (Fig 4-4b). Note that premolars lack a central fossa, but marking the center of the occlusal surface helps determine the position where the triangular ridges terminate during waxing. Waxing Steps for Teeth Nos. 29 and 30592. Prepare the opposing cast.• Apply lubricant to the opposing occlusal surfaces of teeth nos. 3 and 4 (Fig 4-5a).• Mark with a pencil the contact locations on these teeth. These are the palatal cusp tips, the highest convexity of the mesial marginal ridges, and the central fossa of tooth no. 3 (Fig 4-5b).Fig 4-5a Lubricant application with brown sable hairs of double-ended brush.Fig 4-5b Contact points on the maxillary right rst molar and second premolar.Fig 4-6b Thinning and spreading the sticky wax with the spatula.Fig 4-6a Applying the sticky wax with the PKT1 in-strument.3. Wax the contact points: Central fossa, distal marginal ridges, and buccal cusps tips.• Apply sticky wax. Start the wax-up by applying a thin even layer of sticky wax to the occlusal surfaces to ensure that the wax-up will not separate from the cast. The sticky wax can be applied with the PKT1 instrument and then spread on the surface using the heated at end of a small spatula (Fig 4-6). Waxing Mandibular Posterior Teeth in Occlusion604• Wax the contacts at the central fossa and marginal ridges. All the contacting areas are built using the blue wax sticks for better visualization of the contacts. Apply blue wax in the location of the central fossa of tooth no. 30, then close the articulator when the wax is still warm to ensure that your wax cone achieves contact with the opposing tooth. The top of the wax cone should become attened as it contacts the opposing tooth. Repeat the same procedure to wax the distal marginal ridge contact areas (Figs 4-7a and 4-7b). With the articulator closed, you should ensure that the blue wax cones are contacting the proper locations on the opposing teeth, which is best visualized from a lingual view (Fig 4-7c), and that the second molars are still holding shimstock. If the second molars do not hold shimstock tightly this means that the wax cones are high. This can be resolved by reheating the blue cones and closing the articulator when the wax is still soft.Fig 4-7a Blue wax cones are added one at a time followed by closing the articulator to ensure occlu-sal contact.Fig 4-7b Blue cones represent contact locations at the central fossa and distal marginal ridges.Fig 4-7c Distal marginal ridge of tooth no. 29 contacts lingual cusp tip of tooth no. 4. Central fossa of tooth no. 30 contacts mesiolingual cusp tip of tooth no. 3. Distal marginal ridge of tooth no. 30 contacts distolingual cusp tip of tooth no. 3. Waxing Steps for Teeth Nos. 29 and 30614. Wax the buccal and lingual cusp ridges of the buccal cusps.• Wax the buccal cusp ridges of the buccal cusps. Use red wax sticks for the buccal and lingual cusp ridges. Start by adding wax cones buccal to the blue wax cones using the existing tooth structure as guidance. Avoid adding red wax on top of the blue wax cones, where the contacts were established (Fig 4-9a). Carve the excess wax with the Hollenback carver (Figs 4-9b and 4-9c); wax ecks can be brushed o with the sti end of the double-ended brush or with the airway syringe. Check that the shimstock still holds at the second molars after adding each ridge so that high spots can be eliminated (Fig 4-9d).Fig 4-8 Blue wax cones are added to create the buccal cusp tips. Note the attened end of the cones.Fig 4-9b Carving the excess wax with the Hollenback carver.Fig 4-9a Adding red wax to create the buccal cusp ridges.Fig 4-9c Completed buccal cusp ridges of the buccal cusps.Fig 4-9d Checking that shimstock still holds after wax addition.• Wax the buccal cusp tips. Create the buccal cusp tip contact points by applying blue wax at the marked location of the cusp tips in the form of cones. These wax cones will be higher than the previous cones created. The cones are added one at a time, each time closing the articulator to achieve contact, resulting in a cone with a attened end. Each cone can be created by sequential addition if the thinner end of the PKT1 instrument is used, or in one addition with the thicker end of the PKT1 instrument (Fig 4-8). Waxing Mandibular Posterior Teeth in Occlusion6245. Wax the non-contacting cusp tips (lingual and distal cusp tips).• Wax the lingual cusp tips. Using the yellow wax sticks, add wax cones at the marked location of the lingual cusps (Fig 4-11a). Knowledge of dental anatomy as well as the adjacent lingual cusp’s height and the opposing teeth guide the lingual cusp’s height. The lingual cusp of tooth no. 29 is shorter than the buccal cusp and longer than the lingual cusp of tooth no. 28. The lingual cusps of tooth no. 30 are longer than the buccal cusps, the mesiolingual being the highest cusp followed by the distolingual, and are similar in height to the lingual cusps of tooth no. 31. All lingual cusps should be adjusted so that they do not contact the opposing teeth in occlusion as these are nonfunctional cusps (Fig 4-11b).Fig 4-11b Lingual cusps should not contact the op-posing teeth in occlusion.Fig 4-11a Adding the lingual cusps in yellow wax.Fig 4-10a Adding the lingual ridge of the buccal cusp of tooth no. 29.Fig 4-210b Completed buccal and lingual ridges of buccal cusps forming a pyramid shape.• Wax the lingual cusp ridges of the buccal cusps. Add the lingual cusp ridges of the buccal cusps in the same manner, making sure that the articulator still holds shimstock after each addition. The lingual ridges of the buccal cusps are also called the triangular ridges as they resemble a triangular shape with the apex at the cusp tip and the base of the triangle at the central groove (Fig 4-10a). Carve excess wax to achieve nicely shaped ridges. At this stage, you should notice the pyramidal shape of the cusps from an occlusal view (Fig 4-10b). Waxing Steps for Teeth Nos. 29 and 3063Fig 4-13 Adding the buccal cusp ridges of the lingual cusps (triangular ridges).Fig 4-12 The lingual cusp ridges of the lingual cusps are added and carved.• Wax the lingual cusp ridges of the lingual cusps. Add red wax to establish the lingual cusp ridges of the lingual cusps. Excess wax is carved smooth with the Hollenback carver using the adjacent tooth structure as a guide (Fig 4-12).• Wax the buccal cusp ridges of the lingual cusps. These are also called the triangular ridges; red wax is added carefully to build the ridge between the cusp tip and the central groove, where the opposing triangular ridges of the buccal and lingual cusps meet. Care should be taken to avoid damaging the triangular ridges of the buccal cusps that were built previously (Fig 4-13). Carve each ridge after wax addition to keep all the anatomical structures properly shaped, which minimizes the nal carving needed. Waxing Mandibular Posterior Teeth in Occlusion644Fig 4-15a The order in which the marginal ridges are added. The mesial marginal ridge of tooth no. 30 is the last ridge to be added.• Wax the distal cusp. Add the distal cusp with yellow wax in its marked location. The distal cusp is the smallest cusp of the mandibular rst molar and does not contact any part of the opposing tooth (Fig 4-14a). Wax the buccal and lingual cusp ridges of the distal cusp in red, then carve and smooth all the cusp ridges (Fig 4-14b).Fig 4-14b Completed contact areas, cusps, and buc-cal and lingual cusp ridges.Fig 4-14a The lingual cusp tip is created in yellow wax as it does not contact the opposing tooth.6. Wax the occlusal boundaries: Marginal ridges and mesial and distal cusp ridges• Wax the marginal ridges. These structures are waxed using the green wax sticks. Start by building the marginal ridges of tooth no. 29. The mesial marginal ridge is adjusted to be at the same height as the distal marginal ridge of tooth no. 28, and the distal marginal ridge is adjusted so that the contact previously built in blue is the highest part of the ridge. The distal marginal ridge of tooth no. 30 is adjusted to level with the height of the mesial marginal ridge of tooth no. 31, and the mesial marginal ridge of tooth no. 30 can only be added after the distal marginal ridge of tooth no. 29 to guide its height. Carve the excess wax to achieve nicely shaped convex marginal ridges (Fig 4-15). Waxing Steps for Teeth Nos. 29 and 3065• Create a base for the mesial and distal cusp ridges. To wax the mesial and distal cusp ridges, start by adding horizontal rolls of green wax on the location of the cusp ridges on the occlusal surface to create a base for the ridges. This is done using the thin end of the PKT1 instrument starting at one end and extending the wax horizontally. At this point, the green wax should complete the borders of the occlusal surface (Fig 4-16).Fig 4-15c Buccal view showing adjacent marginal ridges adjusted to be at the same height without inter-fering with occlusion.Fig 4-15b Occlusal view after adding all marginal ridges.Fig 4-16 Horizontal rolls of green wax complete the boundaries of the occlusal surface and form a base for the mesial and distal cusp ridges.• Complete the mesial and distal cusp ridges. Continue to form the mesial and distal cusp ridges by adding wax between the cusp tip and mesial and distal boundaries of each cusp in successive increments without interfering with the established occlusal contacts (Fig 4-17a), then carve the excess wax to create a smooth surface, keeping the point angles and line angles in their proper locations (Fig 4-17b). This will complete the boundaries of the occlusal surface and the buccal and lingual surfaces of your wax-up (Figs 4-17c and 4-17d). You should continue to check that the wax is not interfering with occlusion with each successive wax addition by checking the shimstock hold on the second molars when the articulator is closed at the zero mark of the incisal pin. Waxing Mandibular Posterior Teeth in Occlusion664Fig 4-18a Filling in the remaining tooth structure.Fig 4-17a Completing the mesial and distal cusp ridges. Fig 4-17b Carving the excess wax.Fig 4-17c Buccal view after completing all cusp ridges.Fig 4-17d Lingual view after completing all cusp ridges.7. Wax the remaining occlusal surface.• Using the thin end of the PKT2 instrument, ll in the remaining tooth structure with green wax while maintaining the anatomy of the occlusal surface. The part of the occlusal surface toward the central groove should be more depressed to maintain the slope of the cusps and eliminate the need for exces-sive carving (Fig 4-18). Waxing Steps for Teeth Nos. 29 and 3067Fig 4-19 The acorn burnisher is used to mark and en-hance the grooves.Fig 4-20 The thin end of the PKT2 instrument is used in carving.8. Final carving and contouring.• Use the acorn burnisher to mark the loca-tion of the main grooves (Fig 4-19). The back of the thin end of the PTK2 instrument can be used to gently carve the soft wax of the occlusal surface, resulting in a smooth occlusal surface without marks and gouges (Fig 4-20). The slopes of cusps and ridges established in previous steps give the occlusal surface its 3D quality and create the groove pattern and location. The acorn burnisher can be used to emphasize the established grooves in the wax for a more beautiful and artistic occlusal surface.• Mark the buccal and lingual grooves to guide carving of the mesial and distal cusp ridges with the Hollenback carver.• Carve the marginal ridges to form their convex contour without interfering with the previously established occlusal contact, then carve the triangular fossae adjacent to the marginal ridges with the discoid-cleoid carver or the acorn burnisher. Carve any wax blocking the buccal and lingual embrasures.• Occlusal grooves may be smoothed by heating the thin end of the PKT2 instrument and passing it lightly in the groove area.Fig 4-18b After completing wax addition. Waxing Mandibular Posterior Teeth in Occlusion684• Line and point angles can be evaluated from an occlusal view and adjustments can be made as needed (Fig 4-21).• Excess wax akes are brushed with the sti end of the double-ended brush, which is designed to polish the wax with the brushing action, and further polishing is done gently with nylon stockings. Cotton swabs can be used to t the stockings in the narrow areas on the occlusal surface (Figs 4-22).Fig 4-21 Occlusal view of the nal wax-up.Fig 4-22a Occlusal surface of the nal wax-up. Waxing Steps for Teeth Nos. 29 and 3069Fig 4-22c Lingual surface of the nal wax-up.Fig 4-22b Buccal surface of the nal wax-up.9. Check the occlusion.• To conrm occlusal contact locations, apply powder on the wax-up with the single-ended red sable brush (Fig 4-23a) and reapply lubricant on the opposing cast with the brown sable hairs of the double-ended brush to avoid clumping of the powder and the liquid if the same brush was used (Fig 4-23b). Avoid adding excessive powder or excessive lubricant. Gently tap the upper member of the articulator against the lower; the powder will become displaced in the areas of contact, which should appear shiny on the wax-up (Fig 4-23c). It is very common to nd extra contacts on additional areas; these should be carved gently followed by reapplication of powder and lubricant to recheck appropriate contact locations. If all extra contacts were removed and contact is still not achieved at one or more of the correct locations, simply add a very small bead of blue wax to that area and close the articulator members when the wax is warm to reestablish the missing contact. The surrounding area may need to be recontoured. Waxing Mandibular Posterior Teeth in Occlusion704Fig 4-23b Applying lubricant on the opposing teeth.Fig 4-23a Applying powder on the oc-clusal surface of the wax-up.Fig 4-23c Occlusal contacts.

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