Waxing Maxillary Posterior Teeth in Occlusion












71
Waxing Maxillary
Posterior Teeth in
Occlusion
5
Waxing Steps for Teeth Nos. 13 and 14
1. Mark the locations of anatomical landmarks: Cusp tips, ridges, and central fossa.
Start by marking the bucco-occlusal and linguo-occlusal lines on the adjacent teeth. The cusp
tips of teeth nos. 13 and 14 should fall on the intersections between the corresponding line and
a line extended to reach the highest contour of the tooth on the buccal and lingual surfaces. The
central grooves fall on the same line as those of the adjacent teeth. The central fossa of tooth
no. 14 lies slightly buccal and mesial to the central groove line due to the nature of the anatomy
of this tooth and the presence of the oblique ridge. Marking these structures is essential to
apply wax at the right location (Fig 5-1).
Fig 5-1 Pencil markings of cusp tip locations, central groove, central fossa, and marginal ridges.

Waxing Maxillary Posterior Teeth in Occlusion
72
5
2. Prepare the opposing cast.
Apply Slaycris lubricant to the opposing cast to prevent the wax from sticking to the opposing
teeth when waxing the contacts. Mark the opposing contact locations with a pencil; these are
the buccal cusp tips, the highest convexity of the distal marginal ridges of teeth nos. 19 and
20, and the central fossa of tooth no. 19 (Fig 5-2).
Fig 5-3 Applying sticky wax.
Fig 5-2 Pencil markings of occlusal contact areas on teeth nos. 19 and 20.
3. Wax the contact points: Central fossa, mesial marginal ridges, and palatal cusp tips.
Apply sticky wax. Start by applying a thin, even layer of sticky wax to the occlusal surfaces to
ensure that the wax-up will not separate from the cast. The sticky wax can be applied with the
PKT1 instrument and then spread on the surface using a heated at end of a spatula (Fig 5-3).

Waxing Steps for Teeth Nos. 13 and 14
73
Wax the contacts at the central fossa and marginal ridges. Apply a cone of blue wax in the loca-
tion of the central fossa of tooth no. 14, then close the articulator when the wax is still warm to
ensure that the wax cone achieves contact with the opposing tooth. The top of the wax cone
should become attened as it contacts the opposing arch, and the central fossa of tooth no. 14
should contact the distobuccal cusp tip of tooth no. 19 (Fig 5-4a). Repeat the same procedure
to wax the mesial marginal ridge contact areas (Fig 5-4b). With the articulator closed, ensure
that the blue wax cones are contacting the proper locations on the opposing teeth and that the
second molars are still holding shimstock. If the second molars do not hold shimstock tightly,
this means that the wax is high. This can be resolved by reheating the blue cones and closing the
articulator when the wax is still soft.
Fig 5-4b Mesial marginal ridge of tooth no. 13 contacts
buccal cusp tip of tooth no. 20. Mesial marginal ridge of
tooth no. 14 contacts mesiobuccal cusp tip of tooth no.
19. Central fossa of tooth no. 14 contacts distobuccal
cusp tip of tooth no. 19.
Fig 5-4a Blue cone added to create the central fossa
contact. The articulator is closed on the warm wax to
ensure contact.
Fig 5-5a The palatal cusp tips are added one at a
time.
Fig 5-5b Lingual cusp of tooth no. 13 contacts distal
marginal ridge of tooth no. 20. Mesiolingual cusp of
tooth no. 14 contacts central fossa of tooth no. 19. Dis-
tolingual cusp of tooth no. 14 contacts distal marginal
ridge of tooth no. 19.
Wax the palatal cusp tips. Create the palatal cusp tip contact points by applying blue wax at
the marked location of the cusp tips in the form of cones. These wax cones will be higher than
the previous cones created. The cones are added one at time, each time closing the articulator
to achieve contact, resulting in a cone with a attened end (Fig 5-5). Each cone can be created
by sequential addition with the thinner end of the PKT1 instrument or in one addition with the
thicker end of the instrument.

Waxing Maxillary Posterior Teeth in Occlusion
74
5
4. Wax the non-contacting cusp tips (buccal cusp tips).
You can build the buccal and lingual ridges of the functional contacting cusps before waxing
the nonfunctional cusps as you did with the mandibular posterior teeth, or if you feel more
experienced with this exercise, you may choose to build the nonfunctional cusp tips rst, then
wax the buccal and lingual cusp ridges of all cusps in the red wax. The nonfunctional cusps of
teeth nos. 13 and 14 are the buccal cusps, and they are waxed using the yellow wax sticks (Fig
5-6a). The height of these cusps should be adjusted relative to the height of the cusps of the
adjacent teeth while being out of contact with the opposing arch (Fig 5-6b).
Fig 5-6a Waxing the buccal cusp tips in yellow wax.
Fig 5-6b The buccal cusp tips do not contact opposing tooth structure.
The mesiobuccal cusp tip of tooth no. 14 coincides with the mesiobuccal
groove of tooth no. 19, and the distobuccal cusp of tooth no. 14 tip coincides
with distobuccal groove of tooth no. 19.

Waxing Steps for Teeth Nos. 13 and 14
75
5. Wax the buccal and lingual cusp ridges (outer ridges and triangular ridges).
Wax the outer ridges/outer inclines. The outer ridges are the buccal cusp ridges of the buccal
cusps and the lingual cusp ridges of the lingual cusps. Start by adding wax on the outer surface
of the blue wax cones of the lingual cusps (Fig 5-7a) and the yellow wax cones of the buccal
cusps (Fig 5-7b); use the existing tooth structure as guidance and avoid adding red wax on top
of the wax cones where the occlusal contacts were established in the previous steps. Carve
the excess wax with the Hollenback carver. Wax ecks can be brushed o with the sti end of
the double-ended brush or with the airway syringe. Check that the shimstock still holds after
adding each ridge so that high spots can be eliminated.
Fig 5-8a The triangular ridges of tooth no. 13 meet at the central
groove. The triangular ridge of the mesiolingual cusp of tooth no. 14 has
an oblique direction and ends distal to the central fossa.
Fig 5-7a Lingual cusp ridges of the lingual cusps.
Fig 5-7b Buccal cusp ridges of the buccal cusps.
Wax the triangular ridges. These are the lingual cusp ridges of the buccal cusps and the buccal
cusp ridges of the lingual cusps. For tooth no. 13, those ridges will meet in the central groove
and have a steeper slope than those of the rst molar (Fig 5-8a). The triangular ridges of the
mesiolingual cusp and distobuccal cusp of tooth no. 14 have an oblique rather than a straight
direction. They meet near the center of the tooth, forming the oblique ridge (mesiolingual
triangular ridge is slightly longer than the distobuccal triangular ridge; Fig 5-8b). The triangu-
lar ridges of the mesiobuccal and distolingual cusps of tooth no. 14 have a straight direction
from the cusp tip to the central groove (Fig 5-8c). After adding the ridges, carve excess wax to
have nicely shaped, smooth ridges with the proper slope, and ensure that the ridges are not
interfering with occlusion by checking the shimstock hold at the second molars.

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71Waxing Maxillary Posterior Teeth in Occlusion5Waxing Steps for Teeth Nos. 13 and 141. Mark the locations of anatomical landmarks: Cusp tips, ridges, and central fossa.• Start by marking the bucco-occlusal and linguo-occlusal lines on the adjacent teeth. The cusp tips of teeth nos. 13 and 14 should fall on the intersections between the corresponding line and a line extended to reach the highest contour of the tooth on the buccal and lingual surfaces. The central grooves fall on the same line as those of the adjacent teeth. The central fossa of tooth no. 14 lies slightly buccal and mesial to the central groove line due to the nature of the anatomy of this tooth and the presence of the oblique ridge. Marking these structures is essential to apply wax at the right location (Fig 5-1).Fig 5-1 Pencil markings of cusp tip locations, central groove, central fossa, and marginal ridges. Waxing Maxillary Posterior Teeth in Occlusion7252. Prepare the opposing cast.• Apply Slaycris lubricant to the opposing cast to prevent the wax from sticking to the opposing teeth when waxing the contacts. Mark the opposing contact locations with a pencil; these are the buccal cusp tips, the highest convexity of the distal marginal ridges of teeth nos. 19 and 20, and the central fossa of tooth no. 19 (Fig 5-2).Fig 5-3 Applying sticky wax.Fig 5-2 Pencil markings of occlusal contact areas on teeth nos. 19 and 20.3. Wax the contact points: Central fossa, mesial marginal ridges, and palatal cusp tips.• Apply sticky wax. Start by applying a thin, even layer of sticky wax to the occlusal surfaces to ensure that the wax-up will not separate from the cast. The sticky wax can be applied with the PKT1 instrument and then spread on the surface using a heated at end of a spatula (Fig 5-3). Waxing Steps for Teeth Nos. 13 and 1473• Wax the contacts at the central fossa and marginal ridges. Apply a cone of blue wax in the loca-tion of the central fossa of tooth no. 14, then close the articulator when the wax is still warm to ensure that the wax cone achieves contact with the opposing tooth. The top of the wax cone should become attened as it contacts the opposing arch, and the central fossa of tooth no. 14 should contact the distobuccal cusp tip of tooth no. 19 (Fig 5-4a). Repeat the same procedure to wax the mesial marginal ridge contact areas (Fig 5-4b). With the articulator closed, ensure that the blue wax cones are contacting the proper locations on the opposing teeth and that the second molars are still holding shimstock. If the second molars do not hold shimstock tightly, this means that the wax is high. This can be resolved by reheating the blue cones and closing the articulator when the wax is still soft.Fig 5-4b Mesial marginal ridge of tooth no. 13 contacts buccal cusp tip of tooth no. 20. Mesial marginal ridge of tooth no. 14 contacts mesiobuccal cusp tip of tooth no. 19. Central fossa of tooth no. 14 contacts distobuccal cusp tip of tooth no. 19.Fig 5-4a Blue cone added to create the central fossa contact. The articulator is closed on the warm wax to ensure contact.Fig 5-5a The palatal cusp tips are added one at a time.Fig 5-5b Lingual cusp of tooth no. 13 contacts distal marginal ridge of tooth no. 20. Mesiolingual cusp of tooth no. 14 contacts central fossa of tooth no. 19. Dis-tolingual cusp of tooth no. 14 contacts distal marginal ridge of tooth no. 19.• Wax the palatal cusp tips. Create the palatal cusp tip contact points by applying blue wax at the marked location of the cusp tips in the form of cones. These wax cones will be higher than the previous cones created. The cones are added one at time, each time closing the articulator to achieve contact, resulting in a cone with a attened end (Fig 5-5). Each cone can be created by sequential addition with the thinner end of the PKT1 instrument or in one addition with the thicker end of the instrument. Waxing Maxillary Posterior Teeth in Occlusion7454. Wax the non-contacting cusp tips (buccal cusp tips).• You can build the buccal and lingual ridges of the functional contacting cusps before waxing the nonfunctional cusps as you did with the mandibular posterior teeth, or if you feel more experienced with this exercise, you may choose to build the nonfunctional cusp tips rst, then wax the buccal and lingual cusp ridges of all cusps in the red wax. The nonfunctional cusps of teeth nos. 13 and 14 are the buccal cusps, and they are waxed using the yellow wax sticks (Fig 5-6a). The height of these cusps should be adjusted relative to the height of the cusps of the adjacent teeth while being out of contact with the opposing arch (Fig 5-6b).Fig 5-6a Waxing the buccal cusp tips in yellow wax.Fig 5-6b The buccal cusp tips do not contact opposing tooth structure. The mesiobuccal cusp tip of tooth no. 14 coincides with the mesiobuccal groove of tooth no. 19, and the distobuccal cusp of tooth no. 14 tip coincides with distobuccal groove of tooth no. 19. Waxing Steps for Teeth Nos. 13 and 14755. Wax the buccal and lingual cusp ridges (outer ridges and triangular ridges).• Wax the outer ridges/outer inclines. The outer ridges are the buccal cusp ridges of the buccal cusps and the lingual cusp ridges of the lingual cusps. Start by adding wax on the outer surface of the blue wax cones of the lingual cusps (Fig 5-7a) and the yellow wax cones of the buccal cusps (Fig 5-7b); use the existing tooth structure as guidance and avoid adding red wax on top of the wax cones where the occlusal contacts were established in the previous steps. Carve the excess wax with the Hollenback carver. Wax ecks can be brushed o with the sti end of the double-ended brush or with the airway syringe. Check that the shimstock still holds after adding each ridge so that high spots can be eliminated.Fig 5-8a The triangular ridges of tooth no. 13 meet at the central groove. The triangular ridge of the mesiolingual cusp of tooth no. 14 has an oblique direction and ends distal to the central fossa.Fig 5-7a Lingual cusp ridges of the lingual cusps.Fig 5-7b Buccal cusp ridges of the buccal cusps.• Wax the triangular ridges. These are the lingual cusp ridges of the buccal cusps and the buccal cusp ridges of the lingual cusps. For tooth no. 13, those ridges will meet in the central groove and have a steeper slope than those of the rst molar (Fig 5-8a). The triangular ridges of the mesiolingual cusp and distobuccal cusp of tooth no. 14 have an oblique rather than a straight direction. They meet near the center of the tooth, forming the oblique ridge (mesiolingual triangular ridge is slightly longer than the distobuccal triangular ridge; Fig 5-8b). The triangu-lar ridges of the mesiobuccal and distolingual cusps of tooth no. 14 have a straight direction from the cusp tip to the central groove (Fig 5-8c). After adding the ridges, carve excess wax to have nicely shaped, smooth ridges with the proper slope, and ensure that the ridges are not interfering with occlusion by checking the shimstock hold at the second molars. Waxing Maxillary Posterior Teeth in Occlusion7656. Wax the occlusal boundaries: Marginal ridges and mesial and distal cusp ridges.• Wax the marginal ridges. These structures are waxed using the green wax sticks. Start by adding the marginal ridges of tooth no. 14. The distal marginal ridge is adjusted to be at the same height as the mesial marginal ridge of tooth no. 15, and the mesial marginal ridge is adjusted so that the contact built in blue is the highest part of the ridge. The distal marginal ridge of tooth no. 13 can only be added after the mesial marginal ridge of tooth no. 14 to guide its height, and the mesial marginal ridge of tooth no. 13 is adjusted to level with the height of the distal marginal ridge of tooth no. 12. Carve the excess wax to achieve nicely shaped convex marginal ridges (Fig 5-9).Fig 5-8b The triangular ridges of the distobuccal and mesiolingual cusps of tooth no. 14 run obliquely and together form the oblique ridge.Fig 5-8c Completed buccal and lingual ridges in red, contact areas in blue, non-contact areas in yellow. Waxing Steps for Teeth Nos. 13 and 1477• Create a base for the mesial and distal cusp ridges. To wax the mesial and distal cusp ridges, start by adding horizontal rolls of green wax on the location of the cusp ridges on the occlusal surface to create a base for the ridges. This can be done using the thin end of the PKT1 instrument, starting at one end and extending the wax horizontally to the other end. When you are done, the green wax should complete the borders of occlusal surface (Fig 5-10).Fig 5-9a Order of adding the marginal ridges. Fig 5-9b All adjacent marginal ridg-es should be at the same height.Fig 5-10a Fig 5-10b  Waxing Maxillary Posterior Teeth in Occlusion785Fig 5-11b Carving ridges to the proper shape and contour.Fig 5-11c Finished buccal ridges of the buccal cusps in red and mesial and distal cusp ridges in green.Fig 5-11d Finished lingual ridges of the lingual cusps in red and mesial and distal cusp ridges in green.Fig 5-11a Waxing the mesial and distal cusp ridges.• Complete the mesial and distal cusp ridges. Continue to build the mesial and distal cusp ridges by adding wax between the cusp tip and the mesial and distal boundaries of each cusp in successive increments without interfering with the established occlusal contacts (Fig 5-11a), and then carve the excess wax to create a smooth surface, keeping the line and point angles in their proper locations (Figs 5-11b to 5-11d). This will complete the boundaries of the occlusal surface and the buccal and lingual surfaces of your wax-up. You should continue to check that the wax is not interfering with occlusion by checking the shimstock hold on the second molars when the articulator is closed at the zero mark of the incisal pin. Waxing Steps for Teeth Nos. 13 and 1479Fig 5-12a Wax is added mesial and distal to the triangular ridg-es, maintaining the pyramidal shape of the cusps.Fig 5-12b Green wax is added to tooth no. 14 to complete the oblique ridge, following the outline initiated in the previous steps.Fig 5-12c Completed wax addition.7. Wax the remaining occlusal surface.• Fill in the remaining tooth structure. Using the thin end of the PKT2 instrument, ll in the remain-ing tooth structure with green wax while maintaining the anatomy of the occlusal surface. The part of the occlusal surface toward the central groove should be more depressed to maintain the slope of the cusps and eliminate the need for excessive carving (Fig 5-12). Waxing Maxillary Posterior Teeth in Occlusion805• Wax the fth cusp (cusp of Carabelli). Add red wax lingual to the mesiolingual cusp to create the cusp of Carabelli. This cusp is underdeveloped and nonfunctional (composed only of enamel) and is separated from the mesiolingual cusp by a groove called the fth cusp groove (Fig 5-13).8. Final carving and contouring.• Mark the location of the grooves with the acorn burnisher, including the fth cusp groove (Fig 5-14), then gently carve with the PKT2 instrument or carver. The acorn burnisher is used to emphasize the estab-lished grooves in the wax-up by the proper slopes of the ridges.Fig 5-13 Waxing the cusp of Carabelli.Fig 5-15a The Hollenback carv-er is used to carve the mesial and distal cusp ridges.Fig 5-15b Occlusal view of nal wax-up.Fig 5-14 The buccal groove is carved with the acorn burnisher.• Mark the buccal and lingual grooves to guide in the carving of the mesial and distal cusp ridges with the Hollenback carver (Fig 5-15).• Carve the marginal ridges to form their convex contour without interfering with the occlusal contact established previ-ously.• Carve the triangular fossae adjacent to the marginal ridges with the discoid-cleoid carver or the acorn burnisher.• Carve any wax blocking the buccal and lingual embrasures.• Occlusal grooves may be smoothed by heat-ing the thin end of the PKT2 instrument and passing it lightly in the groove area. Waxing Steps for Teeth Nos. 13 and 1481• Line and point angles can be evaluated from an occlusal view, and adjustments can be made as needed.• Polishing is done gently with nylon stockings; cotton swabs can be used to t the stockings in the narrow areas on the occlusal surface (Fig 5-16).Fig 5-16a Occlusal view of nal wax-up.Fig 5-16c Buccal view of nal wax-up.Fig 5-16b Lingual view of nal wax-up.9. Check the occlusion.• To conrm the occlusal contact locations, apply powder on the wax-up with the single-ended red sable brush and reapply lubricant on the opposing cast with the brown sable hairs of the double-ended brush to avoid clumping of the powder and the liquid if the same brush was used (avoid adding excessive powder or excessive lubricant). Gently tap the upper member Waxing Maxillary Posterior Teeth in Occlusion825of the articulator against the lower; the powder will become displaced in the areas of contact, which should appear shiny on the wax-up (Fig 5-17). It is very common to nd extra contacts on additional areas; these should be carved gently, followed by reapplication of the powder and the lubricant to recheck the proper contact locations. If all extra contacts were removed and contact is still not achieved at one or more of the appropriate contact locations, simply add a very small bead of blue wax to that area, close the articulator members when the wax is warm to reestablish the contact, add wax to adjacent areas, and recarve as needed to maintain the shape of the occlusal surface.Fig 5-17 Occlusal contacts.

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